Francisco Espinosa

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The authors have developed a model of chronic cerebral vasospasm analogous to the clinical situation, by inducing a large subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in monkeys. With this model, the size of the SAH apparent on the first computerized tomography (CT) scan was correlated with the incidence and severity of cerebral vasospasm that developed. Indices monitored(More)
This study sought to investigate the normal muscle fibre size and type distribution of the human erector spinae, both in thoracic and lumbar regions, in a group of 31 young healthy male (n = 17) and female (n = 14) volunteers. Two percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were obtained under local anaesthesia, from the belly of the left erector spinae, at the(More)
The authors have developed a method to induce chronic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in monkeys. With microsurgical techniques, 33 monkeys had a frontotemporal craniectomy and unilateral opening of the subarachnoid cisterns. Cerebrospinal fluid was drained and a fresh hematoma, obtained from an average of 7 ml of autologous blood,(More)
Injection of endothelin-1 (9 pmol) into the lateral cerebral ventricle of rats produced barrel-rotations, convulsions, tonic hindlimb extensions, facial clonus, and kinetic ataxia for up to 45 min. Quantitative metabolic autoradiographs produced from the [14C]deoxyglucose method and analyzed over 60 individual brain structures or subregions revealed intense(More)
Endothelin-1 (ET) produces contraction of cerebral resistance vessels in vitro and in situ, but also is neuroactive causing increases in tissue energy metabolism as measured by [14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography in the intact rat brain. ET may, therefore, disengage the normally tight linkage between cerebral blood flow and tissue metabolism. Using(More)
A right-sided subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was created in 12 monkeys. Only the right (clot-side) cerebral arteries developed angiographic vasospasm (VSP), which was maximal 7 days after SAH. Eight animals were killed at this time and the remainder at 14 days. At the time of killing the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) were harvested, and four normal, left(More)
Experienced neurosurgeons at eight spinal cord stimulation centers in the United States, Canada, and Europe participated in a study from 1997 to 2000 investigating the safety, performance, and efficacy of a Transverse Tripolar Stimulation (TTS) system invented at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. This device was proposed to improve the ability of(More)
Roots of intact olive seedlings, axenically cultured, were alternatively placed in contact with Rhizophagus irregularis (mycorrhizal) or Verticillim dahliae (pathogenic) fungi. MeJA treatments were also included. In vivo redox activities in the apoplast of the intact roots (anion superoxide generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities) were(More)
Excised and cold-preincubated sunflower seedling roots were compared with intact non-preincubated roots to test the effect of the injury stress and cold preincubation on the oxidative burst measured as apoplastic superoxide (O 2 .− ) generation and exocellular peroxidase (ECPOX) activity. Preincubated excised or intact roots released into the medium(More)
Chronic cerebral vasospasm was induced in monkeys by placement of an autologous blood clot after the basal cisterns had been opened over the arteries of the circle of Willis on one side. The experimental protocol was detailed in Part 1 of this paper. Twenty of the 30 monkeys studied from both groups (one receiving placebo and the other nimodipine) underwent(More)