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Genitourinary fistulas are one of the most serious complications in gynecologic and obstetric practice. Any woman who suffers this unfortunate incident will be facing pain as well as unplanned financial expenses and diminished quality of life. Doctors participating in surgical events that cause fistulas will in most cases be disappointed at not having(More)
Higher throughput thermodynamic measurements can provide value in structure-based drug discovery during fragment screening, hit validation, and lead optimization. Enthalpy can be used to detect and characterize ligand binding, and changes that affect the interaction of protein and ligand can sometimes be detected more readily from changes in the enthalpy of(More)
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) provides a sensitive and accurate means by which to study the thermodynamics of binding reactions. In addition, it enables label-free measurement of enzymatic reactions. The advent of extremely sensitive microcalorimeters have made it increasingly valuable as a tool for hit validation and characterization, but its use(More)
Fragment-based screening has typically relied on X-ray or nuclear magnetic resonance methods to identify low-affinity ligands that bind to therapeutic targets. These techniques are expensive in terms of material and time, so it useful to have a higher throughput method to reliably prescreen a fragment library to identify a subset of compounds for structural(More)
We demonstrate rapid mixing of sub-microlitre droplets (250 nl) using miniaturized magnetic stir bars (400 μm × 200 μm × 15 μm). The stir bars are fabricated using laser micromachining and placed on the substrate on which the drops are manipulated. They are activated by an externally applied magnetic field and used in combination with on-demand drop merging(More)
We report the fabrication of enthalpy arrays and their use to detect molecular interactions, including protein-ligand binding, enzymatic turnover, and mitochondrial respiration. Enthalpy arrays provide a universal assay methodology with no need for specific assay development such as fluorescent labeling or immobilization of reagents, which can adversely(More)