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A meta-analysis of worldwide studies, found by a 10-year literature follow-up and/or by searching PubMed, was performed. Forty-two studies across 20 nations consistently demonstrated an association between schizophrenia and current smoking (weighted average odds ratio, OR=5.9; 95% confidence interval, CI 4.9--5.7). In 32 male studies across 18 nations, the(More)
This paper presents a novel contact-free biometric identification system based on geometrical features of the human hand. The right hand images are acquired by a commercial modified webcam with a 320x240 pixels resolution. The hand is illuminated by an infra-red light to solve segmentation problems in a real environment. The geometrical features are(More)
A prior study in a US state hospital suggested that schizophrenia is more closely associated with tobacco smoking when compared with other severe mental illnesses. This second study, in a neighborhood hospital, tries to (1) replicate that schizophrenia is associated with smoking and heavy smoking, and (2) rule out that this relationship is explained by(More)
This study replicates, using more refined methodology, the indications of prior studies that patients with schizophrenia show a greater frequency of tobacco smoking than patients with mood disorders. The sample included 66 patients with schizophrenia and 51 patients with a mood disorder who were admitted at a state hospital in Kentucky. The control group(More)
BACKGROUND Smoking may have a beneficial effect on either schizophrenic symptoms or antipsychotic side-effects, but studies are hampered by the lack of control of confounding factors. AIMS To explore the self-medication hypothesis in a large sample of stable out-patients with schizophrenia. METHOD Symptoms, assessed with the Positive and Negative(More)
BACKGROUND Trajectory patterns of positive, disorganized and negative dimension symptoms during antipsychotic treatment in drug-naive patients with first-episode psychosis have yet to be examined by using naturalistic data. METHOD This pragmatic clinical trial randomized 161 drug-naive patients with a first episode of psychosis to olanzapine, risperidone(More)
Age at onset of daily smoking (AODS) was compared in schizophrenia (N=258), mood disorders (N=166) and controls (N=381) to replicate a different AODS in schizophrenia patients, and to confirm that this is not necessarily explained by the prodromal period. The cumulative hazard curves for schizophrenia, mood disorders and controls were significantly(More)
This study investigated prolactin levels in two groups of children and adolescents receiving risperidone (N=29) or olanzapine (N=13). It focused not only on significant differences but also on effect sizes; took into account dose effects and gender differences; used a longitudinal design (months 1, 3, 6 and 12) that helped control for individual(More)
Clozapine is mainly metabolized by the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which may be inhibited by serious respiratory infections. This case report supports that a serious respiratory infection may increase clozapine levels and contribute to side effects. Plasma clozapine and norclozapine levels were monitored 17 times during 1 year. The concentration-to-dose(More)
This study in a Spanish hospital replicated two US studies suggesting that schizophrenia is associated with smoking when compared with other severe mental illnesses. Neither antipsychotics nor institutionalism could explain this relationship. Seventy of the 100 schizophrenic and 53 of the 100 non-schizophrenic inpatients were current smokers. After(More)