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Propulsive forces generated by swimmers hand/forearm, have been studied through experimental tests. However, there are serious doubts as to whether forces quantified in this way are accurate enough to be meaningful. In order to solve some experimental problems, some numerical techniques have been proposed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The main(More)
This study used a computational fluid dynamics methodology to analyze the effect of body position on the drag coefficient during submerged gliding in swimming. The k-epsilon turbulent model implemented in the commercial code Fluent and applied to the flow around a three-dimensional model of a male adult swimmer was used. Two common gliding positions were(More)
This study aimed to characterise both the $$ \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} $$ kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between $$ \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} $$ kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to(More)
The aim of the present study was to analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of a true model of a swimmer hand with the thumb in different positions using numerical simulation techniques. A three-dimensional domain was created to simulate the fluid flow around three models of a swimmer hand, with the thumb in different positions: thumb fully abducted,(More)
Elite level athletes seem to be prone to illness especially during heavy training phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long term intensive training on the functional features of innate immune cells from high competitive level swimmers, particularly the production of inflammatory mediators and the possible relationship with upper(More)
Immune changes and increased susceptibility to infection are often reported in elite athletes. Infectious episodes can often impair training and performance with consequences for health and sporting success. This study monitored the occurrence of episodes of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and the variation in circulating NK cells, CD56bright and CD56dim(More)
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of finger spread on the propulsive force production in swimming using computational fluid dynamics. Computer tomography scans of an Olympic swimmer hand were conducted. This procedure involved three models of the hand with differing finger spreads: fingers closed together (no spread), fingers with a(More)
Overview Triathlon performance is influenced by a competitors' discipline specific ability, across all three of its sub-events, relative to who else is in the race field. Residual fatigue and or altered movement patterns, as a result of the preceding swim and cycle, may lead to a competitor completing the run in less than his/her optimal manner. This may(More)
High intensity training regimens appear to put athletes at a higher risk of illness. As these have been linked to alterations in the proportions of differentiated T cells, how training load affects these populations could have important implications for athlete susceptibility to disease. This study examined the effect of a winter training season on the(More)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of a realistic model of an elite swimmer hand/forearm using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics techniques. A three-dimensional domain was designed to simulate the fluid flow around a swimmer hand and forearm model in different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90° for the three(More)