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Propulsive forces generated by swimmers hand/forearm, have been studied through experimental tests. However, there are serious doubts as to whether forces quantified in this way are accurate enough to be meaningful. In order to solve some experimental problems, some numerical techniques have been proposed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The main(More)
This study aimed to characterise both the $$ \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} $$ kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between $$ \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} $$ kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to(More)
This study used a computational fluid dynamics methodology to analyze the effect of body position on the drag coefficient during submerged gliding in swimming. The k-epsilon turbulent model implemented in the commercial code Fluent and applied to the flow around a three-dimensional model of a male adult swimmer was used. Two common gliding positions were(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drafting distance on the drag coefficient in swimming. A k-epsilon turbulent model was implemented in the commercial code Fluent(®) and applied to the fluid flow around two swimmers in a drafting situation. Numerical simulations were conducted for various distances between swimmers (0.5-8.0 m) and(More)
The purpose of this study was to understand the ventilatory and physiological responses immediately below and above the maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS) velocity and to determine the relationship of oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics parameters with performance, in swimmers. Competitive athletes (N = 12) completed in random order and on different days a 400-m(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether V˙O(2) kinetics and specifically, the time constant of transitions from rest to heavy (τ(p)H) and severe (τ(p)S) exercise intensities, are related to middle distance swimming performance. DESIGN Fourteen highly trained male swimmers (mean ± SD: 20.5 ± 3.0 yr; 75.4 ± 12.4 kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) performed(More)
Immune changes and increased susceptibility to infection are often reported in elite athletes. Infectious episodes can often impair training and performance with consequences for health and sporting success. This study monitored the occurrence of episodes of upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and the variation in circulating NK cells, CD56bright and CD56dim(More)
The aim of the present study was to analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of a true model of a swimmer hand with the thumb in different positions using numerical simulation techniques. A three-dimensional domain was created to simulate the fluid flow around three models of a swimmer hand, with the thumb in different positions: thumb fully abducted,(More)
Elite level athletes seem to be prone to illness especially during heavy training phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of long term intensive training on the functional features of innate immune cells from high competitive level swimmers, particularly the production of inflammatory mediators and the possible relationship with upper(More)
The purpose of this study was to describe the VO2 kinetics above and below respiratory compensation point (RCP) during swimming. After determination of the gas-exchange threshold (GET), RCP and VO(2max), 9 well-trained swimmers (21.0 ± 7.1 year, VO(2max)=57.9 ± 5.1 ml.kg (- 1).min (- 1)), completed a series of "square-wave" swimming transitions to a speed(More)