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The INK4/ARF locus encodes three tumour suppressors (p15(INK4b), ARF and p16(INK4a)) and is among the most frequently inactivated loci in human cancer. However, little is known about the mechanisms that govern the expression of this locus. Here we have identified a putative DNA replication origin at the INK4/ARF locus that assembles a multiprotein complex(More)
Heterochromatin comprises tightly compacted repetitive regions of eukaryotic chromosomes. The inheritance of heterochromatin through mitosis requires RNA interference (RNAi), which guides histone modification during the DNA replication phase of the cell cycle. Here we show that the alternating arrangement of origins of replication and non-coding RNA in(More)
We have compared nuclear accessibility of methylated and nonmethylated sequences using restriction enzymes. MspI, which cuts CpG sites in naked DNA regardless of methylation, cut DNA in intact mouse liver or brain nuclei almost exclusively at CpG islands. Bulk chromatin was not significantly cleaved by MspI but was cleaved extensively by enzymes that do not(More)
Nucleosomes facilitate the packaging of the eukaryotic genome and modulate the access of regulators to DNA. A detailed description of the nucleosomal organization under different transcriptional programmes is essential to understand their contribution to genomic regulation. To visualize the dynamics of individual nucleosomes under different transcriptional(More)
CpG islands are normally methylation free in cells of the animal, even when the associated gene is transcriptionally silent. In mouse NIH 3T3 and L cells, however, over half of the islands are heavily methylated. Near identity of the methylated subset in the two cell lines suggested that methylation is confined to genes that are nonessential in culture. In(More)
The primary target for DNA methylation in mammalian genomes is cytosine in the dinucleotide CpG. High densities of CpG dinucleotides are found in CpG islands, but paradoxically CpG islands are normally in a non-methylated state. Here, we speculate why CpG islands are immune to methylation and why they are so rich in guanine and cytosine relative to the(More)
Cellular proliferation under stressful conditions may result in permanent genetic and epigenetic changes. Using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we have completed a screening test to identify gene expression changes triggered when cells proliferate under stress. In this manner, we have discovered a novel phenomenon that consists of the rapid and(More)
Nuclear RNAi is an important regulator of transcription and epigenetic modification, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Using a genome-wide approach in the fission yeast S. pombe, we have found that Dcr1, but not other components of the canonical RNAi pathway, promotes the release of Pol II from the 3? end of highly transcribed genes, and,(More)
In the fission yeast, the MAP kinase Sty1 and the transcription factor Atf1 regulate up to 400 genes in response to environmental signals, and both proteins have been shown to bind to their promoters in a stress-dependent manner. In a genetic search, we have isolated the histone H3 acetyltransferase Gcn5, a component of the SAGA complex, as being essential(More)
BACKGROUND DNA microarray technology allows the analysis of genome structure and dynamics at genome-wide scale. Expression microarrays (EMA) contain probes for annotated open reading frames (ORF) and are widely used for the analysis of differential gene expression. By contrast, tiling microarrays (TMA) have a much higher probe density and provide unbiased(More)