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Transcriptional complexes that contain peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1alpha control mitochondrial oxidative function to maintain energy homeostasis in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. An important component in the energy and nutrient pathways is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that regulates cell(More)
Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is a familial tumor syndrome due to mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, in which progression to malignancy is rare. Primary Tsc2(-/-) murine embryo fibroblast cultures display early senescence with overexpression of p21CIP1/WAF1 that is rescued by loss of TP53. Tsc2(-/-)TP53(-/-) cells, as well as tumors from Tsc2(+/-) mice, display an(More)
We have studied two related proteins that contain a repeated amino acid motif homologous to the anti-angiogenic type 1 repeats of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). Complete sequence analysis revealed no other similarities with TSP1, but identified unique signal sequences, as well as metalloprotease and disintegrin-like domains in the NH(2) termini. We named these(More)
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of colon and other cancers; emerging evidence indicates that oncogenic β-catenin regulates several biological processes essential for cancer initiation and progression. To decipher the role of β-catenin in transformation, we classified β-catenin activity in 85 cancer cell lines in which we(More)
PTEN acts as a tumor suppressor, at least in part, by antagonizing phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. Here we show that Forkhead transcription factors FKHRL1 and FKHR, substrates of the Akt kinase, are aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm and cannot activate transcription in PTEN-deficient cells. Restoration of PTEN function restores FKHR to(More)
Inactivation of the TSC2 tumor suppressor protein causes tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a disease characterized by highly vascular tumors. TSC2 has multiple functions including inhibition of mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin). We found that TSC2 regulates VEGF through mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways. TSC2 loss results in the accumulation of(More)
Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has been established as a means of conducting reverse genetic studies. In order to better understand the determinants of short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown for use in high-throughput cell-based screens, 148 siRNA duplexes targeting 30 genes within the PI3K pathway were selected and synthesized. The extent(More)
The PTEN gene is a tumor suppressor localized in the frequently altered chromosomal region 10q23. The tumor suppressor function of the PTEN protein (PTEN) has been linked to its ability to dephosphorylate the lipid second-messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and, by doing so, to antagonize the(More)
PTEN/MMAC1 is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23. Inherited PTEN/MMAC1 mutations are associated with a cancer predisposition syndrome known as Cowden's disease. Somatic mutation of PTEN has been found in a number of malignancies, including glioblastoma, melanoma, and carcinoma of the prostate and endometrium. The protein product (PTEN)(More)
The tumor suppressor function of PTEN is strongly linked to its ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5 trisphosphate and, thereby, control cell growth, survival, and migration. However, the mechanism of action of PTEN in living cells is largely unexplored. Here we use single-molecule TIRF microscopy in living cells to reveal that the enzyme(More)