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Experimental schistosome infections induce strong parasite-specific Th2 responses. This study aims to relate human systemic cytokine and antibody levels to schistosome infection levels and history. Levels of anti-Schistosoma haematobium antibodies (directed against crude cercariae, egg and adult worm antigens) and plasma cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5,(More)
BACKGROUND Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of this target age group (8-10 years) in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) and malaria is not known at a(More)
With the current paucity of vaccine targets for parasitic diseases, particularly those in childhood, the aim of this study was to compare protein expression and immune cross-reactivity between the trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, S. bovis and Echinostoma caproni in the hope of identifying novel intervention targets. Native adult parasite proteins were(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis and STH are among the list of neglected tropical diseases considered for control by the WHO. Although both diseases are endemic in Zimbabwe, no nationwide control interventions have been implemented. For this reason in 2009 the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care included the two diseases in the 2009-2013 National Health(More)
BACKGROUND Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ). Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy(More)
BACKGROUND The rate of development of parasite-specific immune responses can be studied by following their age profiles in exposed and infected hosts. This study determined the cytokine-age profiles of Zimbabweans resident in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area and further investigated the relationship between the cytokine responses and infection(More)
Acquired immunity against helminths is characterised by a complex interplay between the effector Th1 and Th2 immune responses and it slowly manifests with age as a result of cumulative exposure to parasite antigens. Data from experimental models suggest that immunity is also influenced by regulatory T cells (Treg), but as yet studies on Treg in human(More)
Certain features of infectious-disease data-including the aggregated nature of the data, confounding variables, correlated variables, and non-linear relations-complicate the use of standard statistical procedures. Using data on a helminth infection, we review the use of three parametric tests (analysis of variance, linear regression, and logistic(More)
Where very young children come into contact with water containing schistosome cercariae, infections occur and schistosomiasis can be found. In high transmission environments, where mothers daily bathe their children with environmentally drawn water, many infants and preschool-aged children have schistosomiasis. This 'new' burden, inclusive of co-infections(More)
Schistosoma haematobium antigen recognition profiles of the human isotypes IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 were compared by image analysis of western blots. Adult worm antigens separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were probed with pooled sera from Zimbabweans resident in a S. haematobium endemic area, followed by the identification of individual(More)