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Experimental schistosome infections induce strong parasite-specific Th2 responses. This study aims to relate human systemic cytokine and antibody levels to schistosome infection levels and history. Levels of anti-Schistosoma haematobium antibodies (directed against crude cercariae, egg and adult worm antigens) and plasma cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5,(More)
Antibody responses to Schistosoma haematobium of 280 Zimbabweans were studied in two areas of differing infection levels. 133 of the subjects came from a low infection area with a prevalence of 33.8% and geometric mean infection intensity of 0.8 eggs per 10ml of urine, while 147 of the subjects came from a high infection area with a prevalence of 62.7% and(More)
With the current paucity of vaccine targets for parasitic diseases, particularly those in childhood, the aim of this study was to compare protein expression and immune cross-reactivity between the trematodes Schistosoma haematobium, S. bovis and Echinostoma caproni in the hope of identifying novel intervention targets. Native adult parasite proteins were(More)
People residing in schistosome endemic areas are often infected with other parasites. The interaction of the parasites in the host has important implications in the development of acquired immunity to schistosomiasis, and schistosome immuno-epidemiology. An analysis of specific anti-schistosome egg responses in children coinfected with schistosomiasis and(More)
Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America. The main control strategy is to treat infected people with anthelmintic drugs, principally the safe and relatively cheap drug praziquantel. Several treatment re-infection studies in humans have shown that praziquantel can have long-term effects beyond a(More)
BACKGROUND Helminth infection rates in grade three children are used as proxy indicators of community infection status and to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. However knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of this target age group (8-10 years) in relation to schistosomiasis, soil transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) and malaria is not known at a(More)
Human gastrointestinal bacteria often share their environment with parasitic worms, allowing physical and physiological interaction between the two groups. Such associations have the potential to affect host health as well as the bacterial and helminth populations. Although still in its early stages, research on the interaction between the microbiome and(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis and STH are among the list of neglected tropical diseases considered for control by the WHO. Although both diseases are endemic in Zimbabwe, no nationwide control interventions have been implemented. For this reason in 2009 the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care included the two diseases in the 2009-2013 National Health(More)
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zimbabwe among 1303 primary schoolchildren from a rural (53.3%) and a commercial farming area (46.7%) to determine the prevalence of co-infection by helminths and Plasmodium falciparum. Urine was examined on three successive days using the filtration method. Two stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz(More)
BACKGROUND The hygiene hypothesis suggests that parasitic infections protect against allergic diseases by modulating the host's immune responses. Experimental studies indicate that this protection depends on the intensity of parasitic infection, but this observation has not been tested in human populations. The aim of this study is to investigate whether(More)