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Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South America. The main control strategy is to treat infected people with anthelmintic drugs, principally the safe and relatively cheap drug praziquantel. Several treatment re-infection studies in humans have shown that praziquantel can have long-term effects beyond a(More)
Human monocytes are commonly defined and discriminated by the extent of their cell surface expression of CD14 and CD16, with associated differences in function and phenotype related to the intensity of expression of these markers. With increasing interest into the function and behaviour of monocytes, it is important to have a clear understanding of how(More)
Human gastrointestinal bacteria often share their environment with parasitic worms, allowing physical and physiological interaction between the two groups. Such associations have the potential to affect host health as well as the bacterial and helminth populations. Although still in its early stages, research on the interaction between the microbiome and(More)
Treatment of 41 Schistosoma haematobium-infected children, 5-16 years old, with the drug praziquantel induced a switch from a predominantly IgA-specific antibody response to a predominantly IgG1 response within 12 weeks. A cross-sectional survey suggests that the same switch occurs naturally, but over several years, as children age (n = 251). The switch may(More)
Antibody responses to Schistosoma haematobium of 280 Zimbabweans were studied in two areas of differing infection levels. 133 of the subjects came from a low infection area with a prevalence of 33.8% and geometric mean infection intensity of 0.8 eggs per 10ml of urine, while 147 of the subjects came from a high infection area with a prevalence of 62.7% and(More)
Experimental schistosome infections induce strong parasite-specific Th2 responses. This study aims to relate human systemic cytokine and antibody levels to schistosome infection levels and history. Levels of anti-Schistosoma haematobium antibodies (directed against crude cercariae, egg and adult worm antigens) and plasma cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5,(More)
BACKGROUND Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is currently controlled by treatment of schistosome infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ). Children aged up to 5 years are currently excluded from schistosome control programmes largely due to the lack of PZQ safety data in this age group. This study investigated the safety and efficacy(More)
We examined the efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium among primary school children during a school-based deworming programme in the Burma Valley commercial farming area and the Nyamaropa rural areas in Zimbabwe, where the disease is highly endemic. Among 767 individuals infected with S. haematobium, 675 (88.0%) received treatment. Two(More)
Similarities in the immunobiology of different parasitic worm infections indicate that co-evolution of humans and helminths has shaped a common anti-helminth immune response. However, recent in vitro and immuno-epidemiological studies highlight fundamental differences and plasticity within host-helminth interactions. The 'trade-off' between immunity and(More)
People residing in schistosome endemic areas are often infected with other parasites. The interaction of the parasites in the host has important implications in the development of acquired immunity to schistosomiasis, and schistosome immuno-epidemiology. An analysis of specific anti-schistosome egg responses in children coinfected with schistosomiasis and(More)