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Alkane hydrocarbons (propane, isobutane, and n-butane) from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) are present in major quantities throughout Mexico City air because of leakage of the unburned gas from numerous urban sources. These hydrocarbons, together with olefinic minor LPG components, furnish substantial amounts of hydroxyl radical reactivity, a major precursor(More)
We have determined the concentrations of carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethylsulfide, and carbon disulfide (CS(2)) in the breath of a group of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and one of healthy controls. At the detection sensitivity in these experiments, room air always contained measurable quantities of these three gases. For each subject the inhaled room(More)
s Abstract This paper reviews the available data and models on energy and material flows through the world's 25 largest cities. Throughput is categorized as stored, transformed, or passive for the major flow modes. The aggregate, fuel, food, water, and air cycles are all examined. Emphasis is placed on atmospheric pathways because the data are abundant.(More)
Recent technical advances allow detection of several hundred volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human exhaled air, many of which reflect unidentified endogenous pathways. Our group has previously estimated plasma glucose levels in healthy adults during a standard oral glucose tolerance test via exhaled VOC analysis. As a result of the metabolic(More)
The average worldwide tropospheric mixing ratio of methane has increased by 11% from 1.52 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in January 1978 to 1.684 ppmv in September 1987, for an increment of 0.016 +/- 0.001 ppmv per year. Within the limits of our measurements, the global tropospheric mixing ratio for methane over the past decade is consistent either with(More)
After methane, ethane is the most abundant hydrocarbon in the remote atmosphere. It is a precursor to tropospheric ozone and it influences the atmosphere's oxidative capacity through its reaction with the hydroxyl radical, ethane's primary atmospheric sink. Here we present the longest continuous record of global atmospheric ethane levels. We show that(More)
Oceanic iron (Fe) fertilization experiments have advanced the understanding of how Fe regulates biological productivity and air-sea carbon dioxide (CO(2)) exchange. However, little is known about the production and consumption of halocarbons and other gases as a result of Fe addition. Besides metabolizing inorganic carbon, marine microorganisms produce and(More)
BioJS is a community-based standard and repository of functional components to represent biological information on the web. The development of BioJS has been prompted by the growing need for bioinformatics visualisation tools to be easily shared, reused and discovered. Its modular architecture makes it easy for users to find a specific functionality without(More)
Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create engaging and robust reporting, or support online resources. Producing accessible and unbiased visualisations from complicated,(More)