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Thermoelectric modules are an important alternative to heat engines in the harvesting of waste heat. Electrical-thermal analogs are often employed when studying heat conduction and this approach can be extended to develop a model for thermoelectric effects. In this article, the coupled thermoelectric partial differential equations are discretized using the(More)
High-temperature high-pressure arc lamps are used to thermally process semiconductor wafers. An accurate dynamic model that links the radiation output to the current input would facilitate the design of a power circuit that optimizes energy transfer to the arc. In this paper, a dynamic arc model is derived using averaging of the energy balance equation over(More)
This paper describes a modeling approach for a vortex water-wall argon arc lamp that is amenable to implementation in real-time controller hardware. The net emission coefficient (NEC) method has been successfully applied for different current levels and can predict the electrical properties of the positive column to sufficient accuracy. The radiation(More)
A. 4-bit fourth-order delta-sigma modulator with a widely programmable center frequency is presented. Novel methods for quantizing and implementing the digitally programmable modulator coefficients enable performance comparable to state-of-the-art discrete-time fixed-frequency modulators at any center frequency from dc to 0.31 fs in steps of 0.0052/s. The(More)
A partial differential equation (PDE) model for the dynamics of a thin piezoelectric plate in an electric field is presented. This PDE model is discretized via the finite volume method (FVM), resulting in a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. A static analysis and an eigenfrequency analysis are done with results compared with those provided(More)
High-temperature arc lamps are used for thermal processing of semiconductor wafers. A vortex water wall on the inner surface of the lamp's enclosure is used to provide cooling for the glass. It has been experimentally observed that, above certain levels of injected energy, the arc shows an unstable behavior and is self-extinguished. In this paper, a(More)
Ultracapacitors are energy storage devices that can be connected in parallel with batteries to create a hybrid power system. This hybrid configuration provides a higher power density than a single battery and helps extend the life of the batteries. An important issue is the voltage regulation of a battery-supplied dc bus subjected to a long high-power(More)
This paper describes a constant switching frequency variable duty cycle control strategy that adjusts the current in a vortex water-wall argon arc lamp to achieve wafer temperature tracking in response to a temperature ramp request. The control system includes a model for the following: 1) the outer loop temperature controller; 2) the inner loop current(More)
A current-controlled driver for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) lamp is proposed in this paper as opposed to most of the published drivers which are voltage-controlled drivers. The design of this driver is intended to enhance the electrical-to-optical efficiency of the lamp and therefore enhance the overall efficiency of the system. The driver topology(More)