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Intracellular molecular motor-driven transport is essential for such diverse processes as mitosis, neuronal function, and mitochondrial transport. Whereas there have been in vitro studies of how motors function at the single-molecule level, and in vivo studies of the structure of filamentary networks, studies of how the motors effectively use the networks(More)
In wound healing and development, large epithelial sheets migrate collectively, in defined directions, and maintain tight cell–cell adhesion. This type of movement ensures an essential function of epithelia, a barrier, which is lost when cells lose connection and move in isolation. Unless wounded, epithelial sheets in cultures normally do not have overall(More)
Electric fields are generated in vivo in a variety of physiologic and pathologic settings, including penetrating injury to epithelial barriers. An applied electric field with strength within the physiologic range can induce directional cell migration (i.e., electrotaxis) of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophils suggesting a(More)
G-protein-coupled chemoattractant receptors signal transiently upon ligand binding to effect cell orientation and motility but then are rapidly desensitized. The importance of desensitization has been unclear, because mutated nondesensitizable receptors mediate efficient chemotaxis. We hypothesized that homologous receptor desensitization is required for(More)
Migration of cancer cells leads to invasion of primary tumors to distant organs (i.e., metastasis). Growing number of studies have demonstrated the migration of various cancer cell types directed by applied direct current electric fields (dcEF), i.e., electrotaxis, and suggested its potential implications in metastasis. MDA-MB-231 cell, a human metastatic(More)
Chemokines mediate the trafficking and positioning of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues that is crucial for immune surveillance and immune responses. In particular, a CCR7 ligand, CCL21, plays important roles in recruiting T cells to secondary lymphoid tissues (SLT). Furthermore, CCL21 together with another CCR7 ligand, CCL19, direct the navigation and(More)
Directed cell migration mediates physiological and pathological processes. In particular, immune cell trafficking in tissues is crucial for inducing immune responses and is coordinated by multiple environmental cues such as chemoattractant gradients. Although the chemotaxis mechanism has been extensively studied, how cells integrate multiple chemotactic(More)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common lung disease characterized by breathing difficulty as a consequence of narrowed airways. Previous studies have shown that COPD is correlated with neutrophil infiltration into the airways through chemotactic migration. However, whether neutrophil chemotaxis can be used to characterize and diagnose COPD(More)
The intracellular signaling processes controlling malignant B cell migration and tissue localization remain largely undefined. Tandem PH domain-containing proteins TAPP1 and TAPP2 are adaptor proteins that specifically bind to phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate, or PI(3,4)P2, a product of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). While PI3K enzymes have a(More)
Bacterial products such as toxins can interfere with a variety of cellular processes, leading to severe human diseases. Clostridium difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB are the primary contributing factors to the pathogenesis of C. difficile-associated diseases (CDAD). While the mechanisms for TcdA and TcdB mediated cellular responses are complex, it has been(More)
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