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Close relatedness has long been considered crucial to the evolution of eusociality. However, it has recently been suggested that close relatedness may be a consequence, rather than a cause, of eusociality. We tested this idea with a comparative analysis of female mating frequencies in 267 species of eusocial bees, wasps, and ants. We found that mating with(More)
Task partitioning is the name given to the phenomenon in which a piece of work is divided among two or more workers, such as the partitioning of the collection of a load of forage between a forager and a storer or transporter. This study 1) reviews empirical data concerning the occurrence of task partitioning in insect societies with the general aim of(More)
Mutual policing, where group members suppress each others' reproduction, is hypothesized to be important in the origin and stabilization of biological complexity. Mutual policing among workers in social insects can reduce within-colony conflict. However, there are few examples. We tested for worker policing in the common wasp Vespula vulgaris. Workers(More)
In annual hymenopteran societies headed by a single outbred queen, paternity (determined by queen mating frequency and sperm use) is the sole variable affecting colony kin structure and is therefore a key predictor of colony reproductive characteristics. Here we investigate paternity and male production in five species of Dolichovespula wasps. Twenty(More)
Low paternity in the hornet Vespa crabro indicates that multiple mating by queens is derived in vespine wasps Abstract Queen mating frequency was studied in the European hornet, Vespa crabro, by analyzing four DNA microsatellite loci in 20 workers from each of 14 nests. Queens were found to be predominantly singly mated (9/ 14), although double (4/14) and(More)
In many bees, wasps, and ants, workers police each other in order to prevent individual workers from selfishly producing their own male offspring. Although several factors can selectively favor worker policing, genetic relatedness is considered to be of special importance. In particular, kin selection theory predicts that worker policing should be more(More)
A caste system in which females develop into morphologically distinct queens or workers has evolved independently in ants, wasps and bees. Although such reproductive division of labour may benefit the colony it is also a source of conflict because individual immature females can benefit from developing into a queen in order to gain greater direct(More)
Worker bees eventually begin laying eggs in honey bee colonies that have lost their queen and have failed to rear a replacement. In contrast, workers tend to lack developed ovaries and tend to suppress drone production by worker nestmates in colonies with queens. We measured changes in worker egg-removal behaviour, ovary development, and egg-laying rate in(More)