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Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AA) contained in herbal remedies results in aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is characterized by chronic renal failure, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and urothelial cancer. AA I and AA II, primary components in AA, have similar genotoxic potential, whereas only AA I shows severe renal toxicity in rodents. AA I is(More)
UNLABELLED Aristolochic acids are potent human carcinogens; the role of phase II metabolism in their bioactivation is unclear. Accordingly, we tested the ability of the partially reduced metabolites, N-hydroxyaristolactams (AL-NOHs), and their N-O-sulfonated and N-O-acetylated derivatives to react with DNA to form aristolactam-DNA adducts. AL-NOHs displayed(More)
To understand how the active site of a DNA polymerase might modulate the coding of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydrodeoxyguanine (8-oxodG), we performed steady-state kinetic analyses using wild-type DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) and two active-site mutants. We compared the coding of these polymerases by calculating the ratio of efficiencies for incorporation of dATP and(More)
Aristolochic acids (AA) are nephrotoxic and carcinogenic nitroaromatic compounds produced by the Aristolochiaceae family of plants. Ingestion of these phytotoxins by humans results in a syndrome known as AA nephropathy, characterized by renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and upper urothelial cancer. After activation by cellular enzymes, AA I and II react(More)
Aristolochic acids I and II (AA-I, AA-II) are found in all Aristolochia species. Ingestion of these acids either in the form of herbal remedies or as contaminated wheat flour causes a dose-dependent chronic kidney failure characterized by renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In approximately 50% of these cases, the condition is accompanied by an upper urinary(More)
Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AA) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adduct formation, is well-documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. Epithelial cell death is a(More)
Acrolein, which is widely spread in the environment and is produced by lipid peroxidation in cells, reacts with DNA to form two exocyclic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine (PdG) adducts. To establish their relative contribution to the acrolein mutagenicity, the genotoxic properties of alpha-OH-PdG and gamma-OH-PdG together with their model DNA adduct, PdG, were(More)
The abasic site in DNA may arise spontaneously, as a result of nucleotide base damage, or as an intermediate in glycosylase-mediated DNA-repair pathways. It is the most common damage found in DNA. We have examined the consequences of this lesion and its sequence context on DNA duplex structure, as well as the thermal and thermodynamic stability of the(More)
This paper reports a new method for expressing numerically asymmetry of the contour of the back in a forward-bending position. Information is given at three spinal levels (T8, T12 and L3) for 636 schoolchildren aged 8 to 15 years. Rib-hump and lumbar-hump scores were standardised to create trunk asymmetry scores (TASs) making comparison possible between(More)
Thermorubin is a small-molecule inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis, but relatively little is known about the molecular mechanism by which it blocks translation. The structure of the complex between thermorubin and the 70S ribosome from Thermus thermophilus reported here shows that thermorubin interacts with the ribosome in a way that is distinct from(More)