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Centrosomes were microsurgically removed from BSC-1 African green monkey kidney cells before the completion of S phase. Karyoplasts (acentrosomal cells) entered and completed mitosis. However, postmitotic karyoplasts arrested before S phase, whereas adjacent control cells divided repeatedly. Postmitotic karyoplasts assembled a microtubule-organizing center(More)
Deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulate with age in humans without overt mitochondriopathies, but relatively limited attention has been devoted to the measurement of the total number of mtDNA molecules per cell during ageing. We have developed a precise assay that determines mtDNA levels relative to nuclear DNA using a PCR-based procedure.(More)
Upon reaction with electrons, oxygen is transformed into reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has long been known that ROS can destroy bacteria and destroy human cells, but research in recent decades has highlighted new roles for ROS in health and disease. Indeed, while prolonged exposure to high ROS concentrations may lead to non-specific damage to proteins,(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mediators of intracellular signals for a myriad of normal and pathologic cellular events, including differentiation, hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis. NADPH oxidases are important sources of ROS that are present in diverse tissues throughout the body and activate many redox-sensitive signal transduction and gene(More)
The endothelium is a source of reactive oxygen species in short-term models of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. We examined a chronic model of atherosclerosis for increased vascular production of superoxide (O2-.) and determined whether endothelial overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) would improve endothelium-dependent relaxation.(More)
Oxidized lipids, such as 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 13-HPODE, a constituent of oxidized low-density lipoproteins, can induce cytotoxicity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), which may facilitate plaque destabilization and/or rupture. 13-HPODE-induced cytotoxicity has been(More)
Exit from mitosis in animal cells is substantially delayed when spindle assembly is inhibited, spindle bipolarity is disrupted, or when a monopolar spindle is formed. These observations have led to the proposal that animal cells have a 'spindle assembly' checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors bipolar spindle organization. However,(More)
The reproduction, or duplication, of the centrosome is an important event in a cell's preparation for mitosis. We sought to determine if centrosome reproduction is regulated by the synthesis and accumulation of cyclin proteins and/or the synthesis of centrosome-specific proteins at each cell cycle. We continuously treat sea urchin eggs, starting before(More)
BACKGROUND The incidence of thrombotic events increases during aging, but the mechanisms are not well understood. To investigate the prothrombotic role of oxidative stress during aging, we tested the hypothesis that aged mice overexpressing the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1) are protected from experimental thrombosis. METHODS AND(More)
The tight coordination normally found between nuclear events and the doubling of centrosomes at each cell cycle suggests that nuclear activities may be part of the mechanism that controls the reproduction of centrosomes. To determine if this is the case, we used a micropipette to completely remove the nucleus from eggs of the sea urchin Lytechinus(More)