Francis J. Miller

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Centrosomes were microsurgically removed from BSC-1 African green monkey kidney cells before the completion of S phase. Karyoplasts (acentrosomal cells) entered and completed mitosis. However, postmitotic karyoplasts arrested before S phase, whereas adjacent control cells divided repeatedly. Postmitotic karyoplasts assembled a microtubule-organizing center(More)
Deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulate with age in humans without overt mitochondriopathies, but relatively limited attention has been devoted to the measurement of the total number of mtDNA molecules per cell during ageing. We have developed a precise assay that determines mtDNA levels relative to nuclear DNA using a PCR-based procedure.(More)
The endothelium is a source of reactive oxygen species in short-term models of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. We examined a chronic model of atherosclerosis for increased vascular production of superoxide (O2-.) and determined whether endothelial overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) would improve endothelium-dependent relaxation.(More)
Upon reaction with electrons, oxygen is transformed into reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has long been known that ROS can destroy bacteria and destroy human cells, but research in recent decades has highlighted new roles for ROS in health and disease. Indeed, while prolonged exposure to high ROS concentrations may lead to non-specific damage to proteins,(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mediators of intracellular signals for a myriad of normal and pathologic cellular events, including differentiation, hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis. NADPH oxidases are important sources of ROS that are present in diverse tissues throughout the body and activate many redox-sensitive signal transduction and gene(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to vascular pathology in part by stimulating NADPH oxidase activity, leading to increased formation of superoxide (O2-). We reported that O2- levels, NADPH oxidase activity, and expression of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase are increased in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Here, we tested the(More)
For animal cells, the relative roles of the centrioles and the pericentriolar material (the centrosomal microtubule organizing center) in controlling the precise doubling of the centrosome before mitosis have not been well defined. To this end we devised an experimental system that allowed us to characterize the capacity of the centrosomal microtubule(More)
Endosome trafficking and function require acidification by the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). Electrogenic proton (H+) transport reduces the pH and creates a net positive charge in the endosomal lumen. Concomitant chloride (Cl-) influx has been proposed to occur via ClC Cl-=H+ exchangers. This maintains charge balance and drives Cl- accumulation, which may(More)
Exit from mitosis in animal cells is substantially delayed when spindle assembly is inhibited, spindle bipolarity is disrupted, or when a monopolar spindle is formed. These observations have led to the proposal that animal cells have a 'spindle assembly' checkpoint for the metaphase-anaphase transition that monitors bipolar spindle organization. However,(More)
OBJECTIVE Examine the contribution of Nox1 NADPH oxidase to atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS Male apolipoprotein E deficient mice (ApoE(-/-)) and male mice deficient in both apolipoprotein E and Nox1 (ApoE(-/-) Nox1(-/y)) received an atherogenic diet for 18 weeks. Mean blood pressures, body weights, and serum cholesterol levels were similar between the(More)