Francis F. Arhin

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Over evolutionary time bacteriophages have developed unique proteins that arrest critical cellular processes to commit bacterial host metabolism to phage reproduction. Here, we apply this concept of phage-mediated bacterial growth inhibition to antibiotic discovery. We sequenced 26 Staphylococcus aureus phages and identified 31 novel polypeptide families(More)
OBJECTIVES Oritavancin, a lipoglycopeptide, possesses bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria including vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci. To understand the time dependence of oritavancin activity, we have undertaken time-kill experiments against isolates of S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium,(More)
Oritavancin, a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide with activity against gram-positive bacteria, has multiple mechanisms of action, including the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and the perturbation of the membrane potential. Approved guidelines for broth microdilution MIC assays with dalbavancin, another lipoglycopeptide, require inclusion of 0.002%(More)
Screening of a chemical library in a DNA helicase assay involving the Pseudomonas aeruginosa DnaB helicase provided a triaminotriazine inhibitor with good antibacterial activity but associated cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Synthesis of analogs provided a few inhibitors that retained antibacterial activity and demonstrated a significant reduction in(More)
The primary sigma factor of Staphylococcus aureus, sigma(SA), regulates the transcription of many genes, including several essential genes, in this bacterium via specific recognition of exponential growth phase promoters. In this study, we report the existence of a novel staphylococcal phage G1-derived growth inhibitory polypeptide, referred to as G1ORF67,(More)
A standardized serum bactericidal assay (SBA) is required to evaluate the functional activity of antibody produced in response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C vaccines. We evaluated assay parameters (assay buffer, target strains, growth of target cells, target cell number, complement source and concentration, and methods for growth of surviving(More)
Slow-growing bacteria and biofilms are notoriously tolerant to antibiotics. Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with multiple mechanisms of action that contribute to its bactericidal action against exponentially growing gram-positive pathogens, including the inhibition of cell wall synthesis and perturbation of membrane barrier function. We sought to(More)
Porin (341 amino acids; mass of 37,782 Da) in the outer membrane of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) permits diffusion into the periplasm of small solutes up to a molecular mass of 1400 Da. Molecular modeling of Hib porin identified its structural similarities to OmpF of Escherichia coli and disclosed for Hib porin a shorter length of loop 3 and a longer(More)
Oritavancin activity was tested against 15,764 gram-positive isolates collected from 246 hospital centers in 25 countries between 2005 and 2008. Organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 9,075), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 1,664), Enterococcus faecalis (n = 1,738), Enterococcus faecium (n = 819), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 959), Streptococcus(More)
1. Galimand M, Courvalin P, Lambert T. Plasmid-mediated highlevel resistance to aminoglycosides in Enterobacteriaceae due to 16S rRNA methylation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003; 47: 2565–71. 2. Doi Y, Arakawa Y. 16S ribosomal RNA methylation: emerging resistance mechanism against aminoglycosides. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 88–94. 3. Bogaerts P, Galimand(More)