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To determine the genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with human toxoplasmosis, we developed a sensitive approach for typing parasites grown from clinical samples by short-term in vitro culture. A newly described nested PCR assay was capable of amplifying genomic DNA from as few as five parasites in the presence of host tissues. Typing was(More)
The efficacy of atovaquone alone or combined with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, clarithromycin, and minocycline was examined in vitro and in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. In vitro studies were performed with MRC5 fibroblast tissue cultures, with quantification of Toxoplasma growth by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For in vivo studies, mice(More)
Prevalence and species distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. were determined among 633 immunocompetent children less than five years of age and 75 patients hospitalized for immunodeficiency who lived in northern Tunisia. Microscopy was used for initial screening to detect positive samples and a nested polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length(More)
To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Cameroon, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Detection of parasites was performed in 181 stool samples from 154 HIV-infected patients with a mean CD4 cell count of 238 cells/mm(3). Only 35 patients (22%) were receiving antiretroviral(More)
This study was undertaken to examine the performance of the Fungitell β-glucan (BG) assay, to compare it with that of the galactomannan (GM) test for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematological malignancies, and to examine the rates of false-positive BG and GM test results due to β-lactam antibiotics among sera of patients(More)
Diagnosis of invasive fungal infection (IFI) remains a challenge. A retrospective study was performed on 279 patients at three French university hospitals to evaluate the performance of the (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan assay (BG assay; Fungitell; Associates of Cape Cod, Inc.) for the diagnosis of IFI. The results of one serum per subject were analyzed for 117(More)
Diagnosis of pneumocystosis usually relies on microscopic demonstration of Pneumocystis jirovecii in respiratory samples. Conventional PCR can detect low levels of P. jirovecii DNA but cannot differentiate active pneumonia from colonization. In this study, we used a new real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to identify and discriminate these entities. One(More)
BACKGROUND Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a well recognized, life-threatening infection in neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients. Early diagnosis is important to achieve the best outcome for these patients; however, definite proof often is difficult to obtain due to counterindicated invasive procedures. METHODS This study evaluated(More)
To determine the types of Enterocytozoon bieneusi strains associated with intestinal microsporidiosis, we developed a rapid and efficient approach for typing parasites obtained from stool specimens by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Typing was based on DNA polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of(More)