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In violation of the 'one gene, one polypeptide' rule, alternative splicing allows individual genes to produce multiple protein isoforms - thereby playing a central part in generating complex proteomes. Alternative splicing also has a largely hidden function in quantitative gene control, by targeting RNAs for nonsense-mediated decay. Traditional gene-by-gene(More)
By spliced alignment of human DNA and transcript sequence data we constructed a data set of transcript-confirmed exons and introns from 2793 genes, 796 of which (28%) were seen to have multiple isoforms. We find that over one-third of human exons can translate in more than one frame, and that this is highly correlated with G+C content. Introns containing(More)
It has been previously observed that the intrinsically weak variant GC donor sites, in order to be recognized by the U2-type spliceosome, possess strong consensus sequences maximized for base pair formation with U1 and U5/U6 snRNAs. However, variability in signal strength is a fundamental mechanism for splice site selection in alternative splicing. Here we(More)
Alternative splicing is widespread in mammalian gene expression, and variant splice patterns are often specific to different stages of development, particular tissues or a disease state. There is a need to systematically collect data on alternatively spliced exons, introns and splice isoforms, and to annotate this data. The Alternative Splicing Database(More)
Macrophages and B cells are activated by unmethylated CpG-containing sequences in bacterial DNA. The lack of activity of self DNA has generally been attributed to CpG suppression and methylation, although the role of methylation is in doubt. The frequency of CpG in the mouse genome is 12.5% of Escherichia coli, with unmethylated CpG occurring at(More)
Human and mouse genomes share similar long-range sequence organization, and have most of their genes being homologous. As alternative splicing is a frequent and important aspect of gene regulation, it is of interest to assess the level of conservation of alternative splicing. We examined mouse transcript data sets (EST and mRNA) for the presence of(More)
The three consensus elements at the 3' end of human introns - the branch point sequence, the polypyrimidine tract, and the 3' splice site AG dinucleotide - are usually closely spaced within the final 40 nucleotides of the intron. However, the branch point sequence and polypyrimidine tract of a few known alternatively spliced exons lie up to 400 nucleotides(More)
The topographic relationships of platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb and glycoprotein IIIa have been studied in stimulated and unstimulated human platelets using immunoelectron microscopy. An indirect approach with ferritin-conjugated goat anti-rabbit gamma-globulin was used to localize the rabbit antibody to glycoprotein IIIa. The second ultrastructural(More)
Membrane organization describes the orientation of a protein with respect to the membrane and can be determined by the presence, or absence, and organization within the protein sequence of two features: endoplasmic reticulum signal peptides and alpha-helical transmembrane domains. These features allow protein sequences to be classified into one of five(More)