Francis Allan Plummer

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BACKGROUND Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral(More)
We sequenced the 29,751-base genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus known as the Tor2 isolate. The genome sequence reveals that this coronavirus is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses, including two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins(More)
Whole genome comparisons identified introgression from archaic to modern humans. Our analysis of highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, vital immune system components subject to strong balancing selection, shows how modern humans acquired the HLA-B*73 allele in west Asia through admixture with archaic humans called Denisovans, a likely(More)
OBJECTIVES Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling. METHODS Two hundred HIV-infected and uninfected women from a Kenya cohort participated in the studies. TLR1 to TLR10 messenger(More)
BACKGROUND Subclinical endotoxemia has been reported in HIV-1 infected persons and may drive systemic immune activation and pathogenesis. Proinflammatory responsiveness to endotoxin (LPS) is mediated by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We therefore examined the association between plasma LPS levels, HIV RNA, and TLR4 expression and cytokine responses in the(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS AND DESIGN A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided(More)
An outbreak of Legionnaires' disease at a long-term care facility in Ontario, Canada from September to October 2005 resulted in the death of 23 residents and the illness of 112 other people. In response, molecular methods were developed to detect Legionella pneumophila in clinical lung samples and to subtype isolates from clinical and environmental samples.(More)
Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in HIV-1 infected individuals, identifying common genetic influences on viral control and disease course. Similarly, common genetic correlates of acquisition of HIV-1 after exposure have been interrogated using GWAS, although in generally small samples. Under the auspices of the(More)
Many factors can influence the rate of HIV disease progression, including those that maintain T cell homeostasis. One key homeostatic regulator is the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R). Previous studies have shown IL-7R expression levels decrease in HIV infection, but effects on memory subtypes, CD4(+) T cells, and cell function have not been explored. The present(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing recognition of recombinant HIV-1 strains globally, but it has been unclear whether recombination results from superinfection during untreated, chronic infection. OBJECTIVE To search for evidence of recombination and superinfection in Africa, where multiple HIV-1 subtypes facilitate identification of strains. METHODS Serial(More)