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The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass(More)
This paper develops a deterministic model of frequency distributions for energy imparted (total energy deposition) in small volumes similar to DNA molecules from high-energy ions of interest for space radiation protection and cancer therapy. Frequency distributions for energy imparted are useful for considering radiation quality and for modeling biological(More)
Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors,(More)
Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program Office plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role. The NASA STI Program Office is operated by Langley Research Center, the lead center for NASA's scientific and technical information.(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the role of kinetics in the processing of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), and the formation of simple chromosome exchange aberrations following X-ray exposures to mammalian cells based on an enzymatic approach. METHODS Using computer simulations based on a biochemical approach, rate-equations that describe the processing of DSB(More)
The physical composition and intensities of solar particle event exposures of sensitive astronaut tissues are examined under conditions approximating an astronaut in deep space. Response functions for conversion of particle fluence into dose and dose equivalent averaged over organ tissues are used to establish significant fluence levels and the expected(More)
Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program Office plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role. The NASA STI Program Office is operated by Langley Research Center, the lead center for NASA's scientific and technical information.(More)
Space programmes are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards missions by human beings to the moon and Mars. However, exposure to space radiation is an important barrier to exploration of the solar system by human beings because of the biological effects of high-energy heavy ions. These ions have a high charge and energy, are the(More)
For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to(More)
The average or amorphous track model uses the response of a system to gamma-rays and the radial distribution of dose about an ion's path to describe survival and other cellular endpoints from proton, heavy ion, and neutron irradiation. This model has been used for over 30 years to successfully fit many radiobiology data sets. We review several extensions of(More)