Francis A. Cucinotta

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The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass(More)
Space programmes are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards missions by human beings to the moon and Mars. However, exposure to space radiation is an important barrier to exploration of the solar system by human beings because of the biological effects of high-energy heavy ions. These ions have a high charge and energy, are the(More)
Projecting cancer risks from exposure to space radiation is highly uncertain because of the absence of data for humans and because of the limited radiobiology data available for estimating late effects from the high-energy and charge (HZE) ions present in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Cancer risk projections involve many biological and physical factors,(More)
PURPOSE To investigate quantitatively the induction and rejoining of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in V79-4 and xrs-5 Chinese hamster cells and HF19 human fibroblast cells, using the phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX (gamma-H2AX) as an indicator of DSB, exposed to low doses of either low linear energy transfer (LET) (60)Co gamma-rays or high LET(More)
For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to(More)
We developed a biochemical kinetics approach to describe the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by low-LET radiation by modeling molecular events associated with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). A system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations describes the induction of DSBs and activation pathways for major NHEJ components(More)
This paper develops a deterministic model of frequency distributions for energy imparted (total energy deposition) in small volumes similar to DNA molecules from high-energy ions of interest for space radiation protection and cancer therapy. Frequency distributions for energy imparted are useful for considering radiation quality and for modeling biological(More)
Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions(More)
The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. These data provide insights into the radiation(More)
PURPOSE To investigate how cell-cycle delays in human peripheral lymphocytes affect the expression of complex chromosome damage in metaphase following high- and low-LET radiation exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole blood was irradiated in vitro with a low and a high dose of 1 GeV u(-1) iron particles, 400MeV u(-1) neon particles or y-rays. Lymphocytes(More)