Francine Mary Benes

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A core component to corticolimbic circuitry is the GABAergic interneuron. Neuroanatomic studies conducted over the past century have demonstrated several subtypes of interneuron defined by characteristic morphological appearances in Golgi-stained preparations. More recently, both cytochemical and electrophysiological techniques have defined various subtypes(More)
Many risk genes interact synergistically to produce schizophrenia and many neurotransmitter interactions have been implicated. We have developed a circuit-based framework for understanding gene and neurotransmitter interactions. NMDAR hypofunction has been implicated in schizophrenia because NMDAR antagonists reproduce symptoms of the disease. One action of(More)
BACKGROUND A previous study demonstrated that myelination of the superior medullary lamina along the surface of the parahippocampal gyrus is occurring in human brain during adolescence. To further investigate whether postnatal increases of myelination may continue during the second decade and possibly even longer, the extent of myelination in this region(More)
Auditory information critical for fear conditioning, a model of emotional learning, is conveyed to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala via two routes: directly from the medial geniculate nucleus and indirectly from the auditory cortex. Here we show in the cortico-amygdala pathway that learned fear occludes electrically induced long-term potentiation (LTP).(More)
A recent report suggested that neurons in the prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and primary motor cortex of the brains of schizophrenic subjects may be less dense than those in the brains of nonschizophrenic subjects. We have determined whether pyramidal neurons and/or interneurons are preferentially reduced in schizophrenic subjects. Twelve control subjects(More)
BACKGROUND The disease mechanism of bipolar disorder remains unknown. Recent studies have provided evidence for abnormal gene expression in bipolar disorder. OBJECTIVE To determine the expression of 12558 nuclear genes in the human hippocampus in healthy control subjects and those with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. DESIGN We used gene arrays to(More)
This paper presents an overview of recent microscopic studies that have sought to define how limbic circuitry may be altered in postmortem schizophrenic brain. The discussion is organized around several basic questions regarding the manner in which interconnections within and between the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampal formation and involving the(More)
The normal developmental series of brains in the Yakovlev Collection has been examined to explore the possibility that various brain regions implicated in schizophrenia may show changes in myelination during late adolescence, a period coinciding with the appearance of early symptoms of this disorder. The prefrontal, cingulate, and parahippocampal(More)
Parkinson's disease is caused by a progressive loss of the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although the main cause of Parkinson's disease remains unknown, there is increasing evidence that it is a complex disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, which affect key signalling pathways in(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbances of gamma-aminobutyric acid interneurons in the cerebral cortex contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The activity of these neurons is, in turn, modulated by glutamatergic inputs furnished by pyramidal neurons. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that glutamatergic inputs onto gamma-aminobutyric acid(More)