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We determined contrast thresholds for lesion detection as a function of lesion size in both mammograms and filtered noise backgrounds with the same average power spectrum, P(f)=B/f3. Experiments were done using hybrid images with digital images of tumors added to digitized normal backgrounds, displayed on a monochrome monitor. Four tumors were extracted(More)
Modern imaging methods like computed tomography (CT) generate 3-D volumes of image data. How do radiologists search through such images? Are certain strategies more efficient? Although there is a large literature devoted to understanding search in 2-D, relatively little is known about search in volumetric space. In recent years, with the ever-increasing(More)
OBJECTIVE Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America. Low-dose computed tomography screening can reduce lung cancer-specific mortality by 20%. METHOD The American Association for Thoracic Surgery created a multispecialty task force to create screening guidelines for groups at high risk of developing lung cancer and survivors of(More)
UNLABELLED The technology revolution in image acquisition, instrumentation, and methods has resulted in vast data sets that far outstrip the human observers' ability to view, digest, and interpret modern medical images by using traditional methods. This may require a paradigm shift in the radiologic interpretation process. As human observers, radiologists(More)
Throughout life, most mammals breathe between maximal and minimal lung volumes determined by respiratory mechanics and muscle strength. In contrast, competitive breath-hold divers exceed these limits when they employ glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI) before a dive to increase lung gas volume (providing additional oxygen and intrapulmonary gas to prevent(More)
UNLABELLED The purposes of this study were: to describe chest CT findings in normal non-smoking controls and cigarette smokers with and without COPD; to compare the prevalence of CT abnormalities with severity of COPD; and to evaluate concordance between visual and quantitative chest CT (QCT) scoring. METHODS Volumetric inspiratory and expiratory CT scans(More)
BACKGROUND Appropriateness for lung volume reduction surgery is often determined based on the results of high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning of the chest. At many centers, radiologists and pulmonary physicians both review the images, but the agreement between readers from these specialties is not known. METHODS Two thoracic radiologists and three(More)
RATIONALE Traditional genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of large cohorts of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have successfully identified novel candidate genes, but several other plausible loci do not meet strict criteria for genome-wide significance after correction for multiple testing. OBJECTIVES The authors hypothesise(More)
Glossopharyngeal breathing, frequently performed by elite breath-hold divers, relies on muscles of the mouth and pharynx to move air into (glossopharyngeal insufflation, GI) and out of the lungs (glossopharyngeal exsufflation, GE). GI has also been used by patients with weak respiratory muscles. Fluoroscopic and endoscopic examinations were performed on(More)
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