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Following the events of September 11, 2001, in the United States, world public awareness for possible terrorist attacks on water supply systems has increased dramatically. Among the different threats for a water distribution system, the most difficult to address is a deliberate chemical or biological contaminant injection, due to both the uncertainty of the(More)
We have designed and built a programmable hardware module, dubbed the GPSY2,for TTL pulse generation and capture in absolute time. The time reference is an on-board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Our specific motivation was to trigger flash-lamp pumped lasers at specific times for calibration of cosmic-ray observatories. However, the potential(More)
The design of water distribution networks is a large-scale combinatorial, non linear optimisation problem, involving many complex implicit constraint sets, such as nodal mass balance and energy conservation, which are commonly satisfied through the use of hydraulic network solvers. These problem properties have motivated several prior studies to use(More)
Aims. The capability of radio antenna arrays to measure cosmic ray air showers with very large zenith angles is explored. This is important, since a possible neutrino detection has to fulfill two requirements. First: antennas should be able to detect very inclined cosmic ray air showers, and second: it should be possible to estimate the distance to the(More)
The KASCADE-Grande experiment consists of a large scintillator array for the detection of charged particles from extensive air showers in the primary energy range ! # " % $ & ') (eV. In combination with the KASCADE muon detectors it provides the means to investigate the possible existence of an iron knee and the change in composition due to extragalactic(More)
Recent results from the multi-detector setup KASCADE on measurements of cosmic rays in the energy range of the so called " first " knee (at ≈ 3 PeV) indicate a distinct knee in the energy spectra of light primary cosmic rays and an increasing dominance of heavy ones towards higher energies. This leads to the expectation of knee-like features of the heavy(More)
KASCADE-Grande is the extension of the multi-detector setup KASCADE to cover a primary cosmic ray energy range from 100 TeV to 1 EeV. The enlarged EAS experiment provides comprehensive observations of cosmic rays in the energy region around the knee. Grande is an array of 700 x 700 m 2 equipped with 37 plastic scintillator stations sensitive to measure(More)
KASCADE-Grande is a multi detector setup for the investigation of extensive air showers in the primary energy range of the knee including energies around the so-called second knee. With the data of the 700 · 700 m 2 large Grande array shower core position, shower direction, and the total number of electrons are reconstructed for events with primary energy(More)