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Following the events of September 11, 2001, in the United States, world public awareness for possible terrorist attacks on water supply systems has increased dramatically. Among the different threats for a water distribution system, the most difficult to address is a deliberate chemical or biological contaminant injection, due to both the uncertainty of the(More)
The design of water distribution networks is a large-scale combinatorial, non linear optimisation problem, involving many complex implicit constraint sets, such as nodal mass balance and energy conservation, which are commonly satisfied through the use of hydraulic network solvers. These problem properties have motivated several prior studies to use(More)
KASCADE-Grande is a multi detector setup for the investigation of extensive air showers in the 10 16 − 10 18 eV energy range. With the Grande array it is possible to reconstruct the shower core position, the arrival direction and the total number of charged particles in the shower. The Grande array measures in coincidence with the original KASCADE muon(More)
The KASCADE-Grande experiment consists of a large scintillator array for the detection of charged particles from extensive air showers in the primary energy range ! # " % $ & ') (eV. In combination with the KASCADE muon detectors it provides the means to investigate the possible existence of an iron knee and the change in composition due to extragalactic(More)
KASCADE-Grande is a multi detector setup for the investigation of extensive air showers in the primary energy range of the knee including energies around the so-called second knee. With the data of the 700 · 700 m 2 large Grande array shower core position, shower direction, and the total number of electrons are reconstructed for events with primary energy(More)
Recent results from the multi-detector setup KASCADE on measurements of cosmic rays in the energy range of the so called " first " knee (at ≈ 3 PeV) indicate a distinct knee in the energy spectra of light primary cosmic rays and an increasing dominance of heavy ones towards higher energies. This leads to the expectation of knee-like features of the heavy(More)