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Seventeen children with vertically acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were followed from birth for a mean of 104 months. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were increased significantly at 3 and 6 months of age but were stable thereafter. HCV polymerase chain reaction was positive at 3 months in 16 patients and at 12 months in one patient. Viral(More)
Changes in gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria caused by diet, antibiotics or other factors could alter enteric and systemic immune functions; changing the gut microflora composition by diet supplementation with specific live microbiota (probiotics) may be beneficial. The 'natural' target of ingested probiotics is the intestine, its microflora and associated(More)
The objective of this document is to identify and reinforce current recommendations concerning the management of HIV infection in infants and children in the context of good resource availability. All recommendations were graded according to the strength and quality of the evidence and were voted on by the 57 participants attending the first Italian(More)
The overall incidence of nosocomial infections in children ranges from 2.3% to 12.6%. Even if there are great variations among data in literature, most authors agree that nosocomial infections are less frequent in children than in adults. Differences between these two populations concern anatomical sites of infection and microrganisms: in children, most(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time-course of the immune response to a field Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain in PRRS-naïve, untreated pigs, as well as in four groups of age and breed-matched pigs injected with a live attenuated PRRS vaccine, its adjuvant, an inactivated PRRS vaccine and an irrelevant,(More)
Major discrepancies are observed between experimental trials of PRRS-virus (PRRSV) infection in isolation facilities and observations made in the field on farm. Owing to the above, a cohort study was carried out in a farrow-to-finish, PRRSV-infected pig farm to characterize the time-course of the virus-specific immune response in two groups of replacement(More)
This study describes the clinical, immunologic, and virological characteristics of 30 vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children older than 8 years of age (long-survivors) before the introduction of protease inhibitors therapy. All of them were followed from birth. At the age of 8 years, 7 children presented no HIV-1-associated(More)
HCV vertically acquired infection is asymptomatic and characterized by a high chronic infection rate; only 9% of HCV infected children shows spontaneous remission. As far as a mild course of the disease has been observed during childhood, we hypothesize that any eventual treatment intervention could be postpone until adolescent age.
Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis C virus can take place in utero, during labour or after birth. Rate of vertical transmission varies widely between surveys but is around 5-6%. Maternal risk factors which may condition perinatal transmission risk are HIV/HCV coinfection, drug use, viral load, viral genotype, type of delivery and breastfeeding. On(More)
The frequency and severity of chronic herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) ulcerative infections were recorded in six HIV-infected children with severe immunodeficiency (mean CD4 + T lymphocytes/cmm = 39.4: range 8-66). The first episode of HSV infection consisted of vesicular-crusty lesions affecting the centro-facial cutis area. In five cases, relapses occurred 4(More)