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Parasitoid wasps have evolved a wide spectrum of developmental interactions with hosts. In this review we synthesize and interpret results from the phylogenetic, ecological, physiological, and molecular literature to identify factors that have influenced the evolution of parasitoid developmental strategies. We first discuss the origins and radiation of the(More)
The relationship between parasitic wasps and bracoviruses constitutes one of the few known mutualisms between viruses and eukaryotes. The virions produced in the wasp ovaries are injected into host lepidopteran larvae, where virus genes are expressed, allowing successful development of the parasite by inducing host immune suppression and developmental(More)
We have analyzed midgut development during the fifth larval instar in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens. In prepupae, the midgut formed during larval instars undergoes a complete renewal process. This drastic remodeling of the alimentary canal involves the destruction of the old cells by programmed cell-death mechanisms (autophagy and apoptosis).(More)
Large-scale losses of honey bee colonies represent a poorly understood problem of global importance. Both biotic and abiotic factors are involved in this phenomenon that is often associated with high loads of parasites and pathogens. A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link(More)
The dynamics of viruses are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Using honey bee Deformed wing virus (DWV) as a model, we conducted field and laboratory studies to investigate the roles of abiotic and biotic stress factors as well as host health conditions in dynamics of virus replication in honey bees. The results showed that temperature(More)
Sugars are critical substrates for insect metabolism, but little is known about the transporters and epithelial routes that ensure their constant supply from dietary resources. We have characterized glucose and fructose uptakes across the apical and basolateral membranes of the isolated larval midgut of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi. The uptake of(More)
Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are obligate symbionts of hymenopteran parasitoids of lepidopteran larvae that induce host immunosuppression and physiological redirection. PDVs include bracoviruses (BVs) and ichnoviruses (IVs), which are associated with braconid and ichneumonid wasps, respectively. In this study, the gene family encoding IkappaB-like proteins in the(More)
Programmed cell death (PCD) is crucial in body restructuring during metamorphosis of holometabolous insects (those that have a pupal stage between the final larval and adult stages). Besides apoptosis, an increasing body of evidence indicates that in several insect species programmed autophagy also plays a key role in these developmental processes. We have(More)
Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) chitinase A (ChiA) is a protein which promotes the final liquefaction of infected host larvae. The potential of this viral molecule as a new tool for insect control is explored here. The ChiA gene was isolated from the AcMNPV genome by PCR and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant protein,(More)
Biotechnology has allowed the development of novel strategies to obtain plants that are more resistant to pests, fungal pathogens and other agents of biotic stress. The obvious advantages of having genotypes with multiple beneficial traits have recently fostered the development of gene pyramiding strategies, but less attention has been given to the study of(More)