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CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes of thymic origin. However, recent data suggest an alternative commitment of regulatory T cells in the periphery, although the precise mechanism is unknown. In the present work, we demonstrate that TGF-beta is able to induce Foxp3 expression and subsequently a regulatory phenotype in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to involve an altered balance between effector and regulatory T cells. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins, controls T-cell responses. We investigated the role of AhR in inflammation and pathogenesis(More)
BACKGROUND CARD15 gene mutations have been demonstrated to confer a high risk of Crohn's disease (CD). Despite this, recent studies reported variable associations between CD and CARD15 mutations in distinct ethnic groups, thus raising the hypothesis that genetic and/or allelic heterogeneity may influence the relationship between CARD15 and CD. The purpose(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS T-helper (Th)1 cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in Crohn's disease (CD). Interleukin (IL)-12/STAT4 signaling promotes Th1 cell commitment in CD, but other cytokines are needed to maintain activated Th1 cells in the mucosa. In this study, we examined the expression and role of IL-21, a T-cell-derived cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND T cell-mediated immunity plays a central part in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism by which T cells mediate tissue damage during IBD remains unclear, but evidence indicates that T cell-derived cytokines stimulate fibroblasts to synthesise matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which then mediate(More)
Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis is characterized by an increased number of acute and chronic inflammatory cells secreting cytokines that contribute to maintain and expand the local inflammation. Locally induced IL-8 is believed to play a major role in the HP-associated acute inflammatory response. Factors/mechanisms that regulate IL-8(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS During the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), interleukin (IL)-12, a cytokine produced by mucosal CD14+ monocyte-like cells, promotes tissue-damaging T helper cell (Th) 1-mediated inflammation through mechanisms that are not fully understood. IL-25 promotes Th2 cell responses by activating major histocompatibility complex class(More)
CEA and CA19.9 are biomarkers routinely measured for monitoring treatment response in metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) patients, yet their predictive value during therapies containing new antineoplastic drugs (i.e. FOLFIRI/OLFOX/Bevacizumab) has not yet been investigated. Consecutive chemotherapy-naive MCRC patients treated with either standard(More)
We measured the serum C reactive protein (CRP) levels by a sensitive immunochemistry method in 101 outpatients with Crohn's disease enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study. At entry, 51 of the 101 patients had raised CRP levels, which showed good correlation with the clinical score. However, one-third of the patients with clinically active disease had(More)
BACKGROUND In coeliac disease (CD), the upper bowel lesion is associated with a marked infiltration of the mucosa with Th1 cells secreting interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and expressing the Th1-associated transcription factor, T-bet. However, the molecular mechanisms which regulate T-bet and promote the Th1 cell response are unknown. OBJECTIVE To examine(More)