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CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory cells are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes of thymic origin. However, recent data suggest an alternative commitment of regulatory T cells in the periphery, although the precise mechanism is unknown. In the present work, we demonstrate that TGF-beta is able to induce Foxp3 expression and subsequently a regulatory phenotype in(More)
BACKGROUND CARD15 gene mutations have been demonstrated to confer a high risk of Crohn's disease (CD). Despite this, recent studies reported variable associations between CD and CARD15 mutations in distinct ethnic groups, thus raising the hypothesis that genetic and/or allelic heterogeneity may influence the relationship between CARD15 and CD. The purpose(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to involve an altered balance between effector and regulatory T cells. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxins, controls T-cell responses. We investigated the role of AhR in inflammation and pathogenesis(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS T-helper (Th)1 cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in Crohn's disease (CD). Interleukin (IL)-12/STAT4 signaling promotes Th1 cell commitment in CD, but other cytokines are needed to maintain activated Th1 cells in the mucosa. In this study, we examined the expression and role of IL-21, a T-cell-derived cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND T cell-mediated immunity plays a central part in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanism by which T cells mediate tissue damage during IBD remains unclear, but evidence indicates that T cell-derived cytokines stimulate fibroblasts to synthesise matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which then mediate(More)
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs are tiny non-coding small endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression by translational repression, mRNA cleavage and mRNA inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypermethylation of miR-34b/c and miR-148a in colorectal cancer, and correlate this data to clinicopathological features. We also aimed to evaluate the(More)
Helicobacter pylori (HP)-associated gastritis is characterized by an increased number of acute and chronic inflammatory cells secreting cytokines that contribute to maintain and expand the local inflammation. Locally induced IL-8 is believed to play a major role in the HP-associated acute inflammatory response. Factors/mechanisms that regulate IL-8(More)
An imbalance of immunoregulatory factors is believed to contribute to uncontrolled mucosal Th1 cell activation in Crohn's disease (CD). IL-18, a macrophage-like cell-derived cytokine, is involved in Th1 clone development, and IFN-gamma production. Therefore, IL-18 expression was investigated in CD. Whole mucosal intestinal tissue and lamina propria(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Defective transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 signaling due to high levels of Smad7 is a feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we analyzed the effect of reducing Smad7 levels with antisense oligonucleotide on mouse models of colitis. METHODS Mucosal samples taken from colitic tissue of mice with colitis due to(More)
PURPOSE Neoplasia cells exfoliated from colorectal epithelium have dysfunctional apoptotic mechanisms, thus it is possible to identify high-molecular weight DNA fragments in feces. This prospective single-center study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of fecal-based DNA integrity versus immunological fecal occult blood test (iFOBT)(More)