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As Internet traffic is estimated to substantially grow in the near future, one of the most challenging issues will concern the reduction of its power requirement. For the core/transport section of the Internet, various network architectures can be considered, typically multi-layer architectures composed of an optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)(More)
Keywords: Cost evaluation Elastic optical networks Energy efficiency Flexible-grid networks Flexible rate transponders Optical OFDM Protection schemes Routing and wavelength assignment Routing Modulation level and spectrum allocation a b s t r a c t The ever-increasing Internet traffic demand introduces new challenges for telecommunications carriers.(More)
Future telecommunication networks will be designed to guarantee energy-efficiency and sustainability. Optical networks, given their capability to switch and transport large traffic amounts for a relatively-limited energy consumption, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the evolution towards energy efficiency. While traditional optical(More)
Currently, the need for “greener” telecommunication networks is stimulating research efforts to find new solutions to cope with power consumption and sustainability issues. Exploiting the potential of optical Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) networks for this purpose has been identified as an attractive approach. However, the traditional(More)
A differentiated quality of protection scheme is evaluated in terms of energy efficiency for fixed-grid WDM and flexible-grid OFDM-based networks. Significant energy savings can be achieved by exploiting the heterogeneous protection requirements. 1. Introduction Telecommunication networks are becoming more and more indispensable for the availability of many(More)
Energy-efficiency and resiliency are two well-established research topics in optical transport networks. On the other hand, their overall objectives (i.e., power minimization and resource-utilization/availability maximization) are in contrast. In fact, provisioning schemes optimized for best resiliency performance are in most cases not energy-efficient in(More)
—In the next 10 to 15 years the Internet will undergo a substantial increase especially with respect to the bandwidth required by end-users. Since the current Internet already consumes a not-negligible percentage of the total world electricity, reducing the energy consumption of telecom networks is expected to become an increasingly-important challenge,(More)
The exposure of primary rat neocortical astroglial cell cultures to acute electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the microwave range was studied. Differentiated astroglial cell cultures at 14 days in vitro were exposed for 5, 10, or 20min to either 900MHz continuous waves or 900MHz waves modulated in amplitude at 50Hz using a sinusoidal waveform and 100%(More)
—Reducing the Internet power consumption will become a challenging issue, since the Internet is expected to face a high growth in terms of traffic requirements. Simply scaling the network architecture, thus increasing its power consumption, proportionally to this growth would not be a practical solution. Various energy-efficient approaches have been(More)
—The huge energy consumption of datacenters providing cloud services over the Internet has motivated different studies regarding cost savings in datacenters. Since energy expenditure is a predominant part of the total operational expenditures for datacenter operators, energy aware policies for minimizing datacenters' energy consumption try to minimize(More)