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The brain is active even in the absence of explicit input or output as demonstrated from electrophysiological as well as imaging studies. Using a combined approach we measured spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal along with electroencephalography (EEG) in eleven healthy subjects during relaxed wakefulness (eyes closed).(More)
Animal data suggest that the gene neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is involved in neuronal myelination. A haplotype (deCODE) in the 5' end region of the gene was described to double the risk for schizophrenia in an Icelandic population (Stefansson, H., Sigurdsson, E., Steinthorsdottir, V., Bjornsdottir, S., Sigmundsson, T., Ghosh, S., Brynjolfsson, J., Gunnarsdottir,(More)
OBJECTIVE Prefrontal dopamine (DA) is catabolized by the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) enzyme. Literature suggests that the Val/Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the COMT gene predicts executive cognition in humans with Val carriers showing poorer performance due to less available synaptic DA. Recent fMRI studies are thought to agree with(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) depends on the coupling of cerebral blood flow, energy demand, and neural activity. The precise nature of this interaction, however, is poorly understood. A positive correlation between BOLD-response and cortically generated local field potentials, which reflect the weighted average of synchronized dentrosomatic(More)
Using single-trial parameters as a regressor in the General Linear Model (GLM) is becoming an increasingly popular method for informing fMRI analysis. However, the parameter used to characterise or to differentiate brain regions involved in the response to a particular task varies across studies (e.g. ERP amplitude, ERP latency, reaction time). Furthermore,(More)
OBJECTIVE Prefrontal dysfunction is considered a fundamental characteristic of schizophrenia. Recent electrophysiological evidence points to a major instability of signal processing in prefrontal cortical microcircuits because of reduced phase-synchronization (i.e., an increased stimulus-related variability [noise] of single-trial responses in the spatial(More)
BACKGROUND Reaction time (RT) is a frequently used measure of information processing speed, but the underlying physiological and anatomical conditions are not yet fully understood. A correlation between measures of white matter (WM) ultrastructural properties and RT is expected--particularly for those WM tracts that are involved in the attentional system of(More)
Human brain lesion studies first investigated the biological roots of cognitive functions including language in the late 1800s. Neuroimaging studies have reported correlation findings with general intelligence predominantly in fronto-parietal cortical areas. However, there is still little evidence about the relationship between verbal intelligence and(More)
Mutational analyses in xenopus oocyte and mice models indicate that the positive effect of nicotine on attention may be modulated by genetic variations within exon 5 of the alpha4 subunit of the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA4. The potential relevance of exon 5 is further emphasized by two recent family-based association studies of nicotine(More)
Diminished left frontotemporal connectivity is among the most frequently reported findings in schizophrenia and there is evidence that altered neuronal myelination may in part account for this deficit. Several investigations have suggested that variations of the genes that encode the Neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 receptor complex are associated with(More)