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The brain is active even in the absence of explicit input or output as demonstrated from electrophysiological as well as imaging studies. Using a combined approach we measured spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal along with electroencephalography (EEG) in eleven healthy subjects during relaxed wakefulness (eyes closed).(More)
Animal data suggest that the gene neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is involved in neuronal myelination. A haplotype (deCODE) in the 5' end region of the gene was described to double the risk for schizophrenia in an Icelandic population (Stefansson, H., Sigurdsson, E., Steinthorsdottir, V., Bjornsdottir, S., Sigmundsson, T., Ghosh, S., Brynjolfsson, J., Gunnarsdottir,(More)
OBJECTIVE Prefrontal dopamine (DA) is catabolized by the COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase) enzyme. Literature suggests that the Val/Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the COMT gene predicts executive cognition in humans with Val carriers showing poorer performance due to less available synaptic DA. Recent fMRI studies are thought to agree with(More)
OBJECTIVE Prefrontal dysfunction is considered a fundamental characteristic of schizophrenia. Recent electrophysiological evidence points to a major instability of signal processing in prefrontal cortical microcircuits because of reduced phase-synchronization (i.e., an increased stimulus-related variability [noise] of single-trial responses in the spatial(More)
Diminished left frontotemporal connectivity is among the most frequently reported findings in schizophrenia and there is evidence that altered neuronal myelination may in part account for this deficit. Several investigations have suggested that variations of the genes that encode the Neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 receptor complex are associated with(More)
Using single-trial parameters as a regressor in the General Linear Model (GLM) is becoming an increasingly popular method for informing fMRI analysis. However, the parameter used to characterise or to differentiate brain regions involved in the response to a particular task varies across studies (e.g. ERP amplitude, ERP latency, reaction time). Furthermore,(More)
Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. The cortical representation of pain - the pain matrix - consists of a network of regions including the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) sensory cortex, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). These structures interact with brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and the(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) depends on the coupling of cerebral blood flow, energy demand, and neural activity. The precise nature of this interaction, however, is poorly understood. A positive correlation between BOLD-response and cortically generated local field potentials, which reflect the weighted average of synchronized dentrosomatic(More)
Mutational analyses in xenopus oocyte and mice models indicate that the positive effect of nicotine on attention may be modulated by genetic variations within exon 5 of the alpha4 subunit of the nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA4. The potential relevance of exon 5 is further emphasized by two recent family-based association studies of nicotine(More)
Attributions are constantly assigned in everyday life. A well-known phenomenon is the self-serving bias: that is, people's tendency to attribute positive events to internal causes (themselves) and negative events to external causes (other persons/circumstances). Here, we investigated the neural correlates of the cognitive processes implicated in(More)