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BACKGROUND Overexpression of glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5. 1.18) has been documented in the erythrocytes of patients with chronic renal failure, and this event may well be of relevance from a clinical standpoint. In fact, it could serve as a marker of uremic toxicity overall, which can contribute to impair the function and survival of the(More)
Cystic fibrosis is a lethal autosomal recessive condition caused by a defect of the transmembrane conductance regulator gene that has a key role in cell homeostasis. A dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator impairs the efflux of cell anions such as chloride and bicarbonate, and also that of other solutes such as reduced(More)
Besides its well-known regulatory role on circadian rhythm, the pineal gland hormone melatonin has other biological functions and a distinct metabolism in various cell types and peripheral tissues. In different tissues and organs, melatonin has been described to act as a paracrine and also as an intracrine and autocrine agent with overall homeostatic(More)
This article discusses different aspects concerning classification/nomenclature, biochemical properties and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are pivotal to interpret the concept of oxidative stress. In vitro studies in both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes clearly demonstrate that exogenous or constitutive and inducible(More)
H2O2 treatment on U937 cells leads to the block of glycolytic flux and the inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase by a posttranslational modification (possibly ADP-ribosylation). Glycolysis spontaneously reactivates after 2 h of recovery from oxidative stress; thereafter cells begin to undergo apoptosis. The specific ADP-ribosylation(More)
BACKGROUND It has been hypothesized that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted by ileal L cells, plays a key-role in the resolution of type 2 diabetes after bariatric operations whose common feature is an expedite nutrient delivery to the hindgut. Ileal transposition (IT), an operation that permits L-cell stimulation by undigested food, was employed to(More)
Oxidative stress, a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), has been shown to induce lipid peroxidation and apoptosis disrupting cellular homeostasis. Normally, the aminophospholipid phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is asymmetrically distributed on the cytosolic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Under oxidative stress conditions, asymmetry is altered, characterized by(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-recognized independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Since homocysteine (Hcy) largely binds to serum proteins (80 to 90%), in this study we investigated the possibility that polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based protein-leaking dialyzers could reduce total plasma(More)
BACKGROUND An increased apoptotic rate of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMLs) in haemodialysis (HD) patients has been reported in several studies, but its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Oxidant stress is a well known cause of cell damage, and several lines of evidence suggest that it might influence the induction and signalling(More)
BACKGROUND High-molecular-weight solutes such as glycation and oxidation protein products are putative proinflammatory mediators found in the uremic blood. The elimination of these and other large solutes by protein-leaking dialyzers (PLD) might help to correct the inflammatory status of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS Two matched groups(More)