Learn More
BACKGROUND Surgical operations which shorten the intestinal tract between the stomach and the terminal ileum result in an early improvement in type 2 diabetes, and one possible explanation is the arrival of undigested food in the terminal ileum. This study was designed to evaluate the role of the distal ileum in the improvement of glucose control in type 2(More)
BACKGROUND It has been hypothesized that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted by ileal L cells, plays a key-role in the resolution of type 2 diabetes after bariatric operations whose common feature is an expedite nutrient delivery to the hindgut. Ileal transposition (IT), an operation that permits L-cell stimulation by undigested food, was employed to(More)
BACKGROUND Overexpression of glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5. 1.18) has been documented in the erythrocytes of patients with chronic renal failure, and this event may well be of relevance from a clinical standpoint. In fact, it could serve as a marker of uremic toxicity overall, which can contribute to impair the function and survival of the(More)
The presence of high molecular weight toxins in the uraemic blood had largely been ignored until the beginning of the era of proteomics. In the last decade, increasing interest focused on these solutes has yielded evidence to suggest that some of these proteinaceous uraemic compounds can play pathogenic roles in the inflammatory and vascular comorbidities(More)
H2O2 treatment on U937 cells leads to the block of glycolytic flux and the inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase by a posttranslational modification (possibly ADP-ribosylation). Glycolysis spontaneously reactivates after 2 h of recovery from oxidative stress; thereafter cells begin to undergo apoptosis. The specific ADP-ribosylation(More)
BACKGROUND An increased apoptotic rate of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMLs) in haemodialysis (HD) patients has been reported in several studies, but its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Oxidant stress is a well known cause of cell damage, and several lines of evidence suggest that it might influence the induction and signalling(More)
BACKGROUND The present study was designed to test the biocompatibility of a new vitamin E-modified multi-layer membrane (CL-E filter), as well as its ability to protect against oxygen free radicals during hemodialysis (HD). METHODS We investigated, both in vitro and in vivo, the bioreactivity of the filter with respect to the blood antioxidants and its(More)
Cystic fibrosis is a lethal autosomal recessive condition caused by a defect of the transmembrane conductance regulator gene that has a key role in cell homeostasis. A dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator impairs the efflux of cell anions such as chloride and bicarbonate, and also that of other solutes such as reduced(More)
This article discusses different aspects concerning classification/nomenclature, biochemical properties and pathophysiological roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are pivotal to interpret the concept of oxidative stress. In vitro studies in both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes clearly demonstrate that exogenous or constitutive and inducible(More)
Oxidative response and inflammation constitute a major defense against infections, but if not properly regulated they could also lead to a number of deleterious effects. Patients affected by different stages of acute and chronic kidney disease, particularly patients on hemodialysis, present a marked activation of oxidative and inflammatory processes. This(More)