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Dystonia is generally regarded as a disorder of the basal ganglia and their efferent connections to the thalamus and brainstem, but an important role of cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC) circuits in the pathophysiology of dystonia has been invoked. Here in a sham controlled trial, we tested the effects of two-weeks of cerebellar continuous theta burst(More)
The dysfunction of cholinergic neurons is a typical hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous findings demonstrated that high density of cholinergic receptors is found in the thalamus and the cerebellum compared with the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. We aimed at investigating whether activation of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway by means(More)
BACKGROUND Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is an atypical degenerative Parkinsonism characterized by postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy and frontal deficits. Recent imaging studies revealed that the volume of cerebellar peduncles and midbrain were reduced in PSP. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies demonstrated a cerebellar(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of latex sensitization in a group of patients with bladder exstrophy, and to determine the role of associated risk factors, e.g. atopy, and the number and duration of surgical and anaesthetic procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study comprised 17 patients (15 children and two young adults) affected by bladder(More)
In animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid-β fragments interfere with mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In the current study, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex (M1) in AD patients and in age-matched healthy controls, using(More)
OBJECTIVE Mechanisms of synaptic plasticity like long term depression (LTD) are altered in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). LTD-like plasticity mechanisms has not been yet fully investigated in AD patients. METHODS Here we studied the effects of low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor(More)
In HIV-1 infected patients severe enteritis and chronic diarrhea are often documented as a consequence of multiple opportunistic infections. We analyzed 48 HIV-1 positive patients for the presence of intestinal pathogenic protozoa. Patients with CD4 > or = 200/mm3 showed a higher prevalence of a single pathogenic protozoa than patients with CD4 < or(More)
OBJECTIVE Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered an age-related disorder. However, it is unclear whether AD induces the same pathological and neurophysiological modifications in synaptic functions independently from age of disease onset. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation tools to investigate the mechanisms of cortical plasticity and sensory-motor(More)
Learning of new skills may occur through Hebbian associative changes in the synaptic strength of cortical connections [spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP)], but how the precise temporal relationship of the presynaptic and postsynaptic inputs determines the STDP effects in humans is poorly understood. We used a novel paired associative stimulation(More)
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in several brain functions ranging from emotions control, movement organization to memory formation. It is also involved in the regulation of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. However, its role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is still puzzling. Several recent line of research instead indicates a clear role(More)