Francesco Cardarelli

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Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are gateways for nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Intrinsically disordered nucleoporins (Nups) form a selective filter inside the NPC, taking a central role in the vital nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism. How such intricate meshwork relates to function and gives rise to a transport mechanism is still unclear. Here we set out to(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1/2 is a crucial effector linking extracellular stimuli to cellular responses: upon phosphorylation ERK [also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase P42/P44 (MAPK)] concentrates in the nucleus where it activates specific programs of gene expression. Notwithstanding the importance of this process,(More)
Tat-derived peptides have attracted much interest as molecular carriers for intracellular delivery as they incorporate specific attributes required for efficient cargo delivery to sub-cellular domains. Little is known, however, about intracellular trafficking and interactions of Tat peptide-tagged cargoes, although some in vitro studies have suggested the(More)
We report on the development of the F64L/S65T/T203Y/L231H GFP mutant (E2GFP) as an effective ratiometric pH indicator for intracellular studies. E2GFP shows two distinct spectral forms that are convertible upon pH changes both in excitation and in emission with pK close to 7.0. The excitation of the protein at 488 and 458 nm represents the best choice in(More)
Spatial distribution and dynamics of plasma-membrane proteins are thought to be modulated by lipid composition and by the underlying cytoskeleton, which forms transient barriers to diffusion. So far this idea was probed by single-particle tracking of membrane components in which gold particles or antibodies were used to individually monitor the molecules of(More)
No methods proposed thus far have the capability to measure overall molecular flow in the nucleus of living cells. Here, we apply the pair correlation function analysis (pCF) to measure molecular anisotropic diffusion in the interphase nucleus of live cells. In the pCF method, we cross-correlate fluctuations at several distances and locations within the(More)
BACKGROUND Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate bidirectional transport of proteins, RNAs, and ribonucleoproteins across the double-membrane nuclear envelope. Although there are many studies that look at the traffic in the nucleus and through the nuclear envelope we propose a method to detect the nucleocytoplasmic transport kinetics in an unperturbed cell,(More)
No methods proposed thus far have the sensitivity to measure the transport of single molecules through single nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in intact cells. Here we demonstrate that fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with real-time tracking of the center of mass of single NPCs in live, unperturbed cells allows us to detect the transport of(More)
Most lipid formulations require cholesterol for successful transfection, but the precise reason remains to be more clearly understood. Here, we have studied the effect of cholesterol on the transfection efficiency (TE) of lipoplexes in vitro. Addition of cholesterol to highly effective DC-Chol-DOPE/DNA lipoplexes increases TE, with 40 mol% cholesterol(More)
A large body of work is currently devoted to the rational design of new molecular carriers for the controlled delivery of cargoes (e.g. proteins or nucleic acids) to relevant subcellular domains, particularly the nucleus. In this article, we show that rational mutagenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat-derived peptide (YGRKKRRQRRR) affords(More)