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Chromatin is a dynamic macromolecular structure epigenetically modified to regulate specific gene expression. Altered chromatin function can lead to aberrant expression of growth regulators and may, ultimately, cause cancer. That many human diseases have epigenetic etiology has stimulated the development of 'epigenetic' therapies. Inhibitors of histone(More)
MCF-7 human breast cancer cells express functional estrogen receptor and grow in response to estrogen stimulation. G(1)-synchronized MCF-7 cells, made quiescent by exposure to the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor Simvastatin in estrogen-free medium, readily resume cell cycle progression upon stimulation with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), even under conditions where(More)
Transcriptional activation of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) plays a pivotal role in G(1)-phase progression, which is thereby controlled by multiple regulatory factors, including nuclear receptors (NRs). Appropriate CCND1 gene activity is essential for normal development and physiology of the mammary gland, where it is regulated by ovarian steroids through a(More)
Estrogen controls key cellular functions of responsive cells including the ability to survive, replicate, communicate and adapt to the extracellular milieu. Changes in the expression of 8400 genes were monitored here by cDNA microarray analysis during the first 32 h of human breast cancer (BC) ZR-75.1 cell stimulation with a mitogenic dose of(More)
Estrogens are direct mitogens for hormone-responsive human breast cancercells, where they promote cell cycle progression and induce transcriptional activation of "immediate early" and cyclin genes. Nongenomic signaling by estrogens, including rapid changes of mitogen-activated protein(MAP) kinase and other signal-transduction-cascades activity, has been(More)
Estrogen stimulates DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in the luminal and glandular epithelia of rodent uterus. We tested the hypothesis that the mitogenic effect of estrogen occurs via activation of the expression of cellular proto-oncogenes by measuring the rate of transcription of 20 proto-oncogenes (abl, bas, erb-A, erb-B, ets, fms, fos, fps/fes, mos,(More)
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, such as Lovastatin and Simvastatin, cause cell cycle arrest by interfering with the mitogenic activity of mitogens present in culture media. Cells are induced to pause in G1 and can readily resume growth upon removal of the enzymatic block. Estrogens, acting via their nuclear receptor, are mitogens for different normal and(More)
Cyclin D1 is a target for positive regulation by estrogens in growth-responsive cells, in which it mediates their mitogenic effects. Amplification and overexpression of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) might thus represent a genetic lesion inducing hormone-independent growth of transformed cells. Indeed, cyclin D1 overexpression has been found in up to 50% of(More)
Estrogen hormones induce transient transcriptional activation of c-fos during the early phases of mitogenic stimulation of target cells. This is mediated by a functional estrogen response element (ERE) that in the human c-fos gene is localized 1kb up-stream of the transcription start site. This is the first known example of transient transcriptional(More)