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Cysteine is the final product of the reductive sulfate assimilation pathway in bacteria and plants and serves as the precursor for all sulfur-containing biological compounds, such as methionine, S-adenosyl methionine, iron-sulfur clusters and glutathione. Moreover, in several microorganisms cysteine plays a role as a reducing agent, eventually counteracting(More)
The ongoing emergence of bacterial strains resistant to even third- and fourth-generation β-lactam antibiotics is one of the most pressing and challenging issues in clinical therapy. Furthermore, under the pressure of antibiotics used ubiquitously over the last 80 years, functional mutations and new resistances are continuously increasing. Therefore, new(More)
The nonsymbiotic hemoglobins, AHb1 and AHb2, have recently been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana. Using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic methods, we show that Fe2+ AHb1 contains a mixture of penta- and hexacoordinated heme, while Fe2+ AHb2 is fully hexacoordinated. In the CO complexes, polar interactions and H-bonds with the ligand are(More)
Serine racemase is the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes L-serine racemisation to D-serine, and L- and D-serine beta-elimination in mammalian brain. D-serine is the essential co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, that mediates neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, cell migration and long term potentiation. High and low(More)
A statistically validated protocol to identify "relevant" water molecules in protein binding sites using HINT score and a geometric descriptor termed Rank is described. In training, conservation/nonconservation was modeled for 86% of the waters. For the test set, 87% of waters were correctly classified (92% when crystallographic resolution was <or=2.0 A).(More)
The energetics and hydrogen bonding pattern of water molecules bound to proteins were mapped by analyzing structural data (resolution better than 2.3A) for sets of uncomplexed and ligand-complexed proteins. Water-protein and water-ligand interactions were evaluated using hydropatic interactions (HINT), a non-Newtonian forcefield based on experimentally(More)
BACKGROUND To understand the energetics of the interaction between protein and DNA we analyzed 39 crystallographically characterized complexes with the HINT (Hydropathic INTeractions) computational model. HINT is an empirical free energy force field based on solvent partitioning of small molecules between water and 1-octanol. Our previous studies on(More)
Structural water molecules within protein active sites are relevant for ligand-protein recognition because they modify the active site geometry and contribute to binding affinity. In this work an analysis of the interactions between 23 ligands and dimeric HIV-1 protease is reported. The X-ray structures of these complexes show the presence of four types of(More)
The intrinsic dynamics of macromolecules is an essential property to relate the structure of biomolecular systems with their function in the cell. In the field of ligand-receptor recognition, numerous evidences have revealed the limitations of the lock-and-key theory, and the need to elaborate models that take into account the inherent plasticity of(More)