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INTRODUCTION Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the skin, vascular abnormalities and variable involvement of organs. Patients with limited SSc typically develop pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). TNF-α, VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor and endothelin-1 play a key role in(More)
Rheumatic autoimmune diseases have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and various types of vasculopathies. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition which starts as a "response to injury" favoring endothelial dysfunction which is associated with increased expression of adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines, pro-thrombotic factors,(More)
Lymphedema is a chronic, progressive, and often debilitating condition. Primary lymphedema is a lymphatic malformation developing during the later stage of lymphangiogenesis. Secondary lymphedema is the result of obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system, which can occur as a consequence of tumors, surgery, trauma, infection, inflammation, and(More)
INTRODUCTION TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to a have a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic immune-mediated diseases. TNF-α inhibitors can be administered either as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-inflammatory or disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to treat chronic immune-mediated diseases. AREAS COVERED Patients(More)
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the skin, vascular abnormalities and variable involvement of organs. TNF-α has a central role in initial host response to infections and in the pathogenesis of various systemic immune-mediated diseases. Serum levels of TNF-α are elevated in(More)
We have previously reported that the serum levels of soluble human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and -G antigens are elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects and decrease after antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we measured soluble HLA-G serum levels in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) affected by(More)
The tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene has been proposed as a major candidate gene in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). TNF-α is a therapeutic target for patients responding poorly to conventional treatments. We investigated the role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -238, -308, and +489 of the TNF-α gene in the genetic susceptibility to(More)
OBJECTIVES During the last decade many new biological immune modulators have entered the market as new therapeutic principles. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to a have a key role in the pathogenic mechanisms of various immune-mediated or inflammatory diseases. However, TNF-α also plays a key role in endothelial(More)
The ongoing progresses in the knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of various immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases as well as the availability of innovative biotechnological approaches have led to the development of new drugs that add to conventional treatments. Among these, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors, that is, infliximab, adalimumab,(More)
INTRODUCTION During the last decade, many new biological immune modulators have entered the market as new therapeutic principles. Biologics, including TNF-α inhibitors, are the new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated or inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, ankylosing spondylitis,(More)