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IL-17-producing CD4+ T helper cells (TH17) have been extensively investigated in mouse models of autoimmunity. However, the requirements for differentiation and the properties of pathogen-induced human TH17 cells remain poorly defined. Using an approach that combines the in vitro priming of naive T cells with the ex vivo analysis of memory T cells, we(More)
IL-36α (IL-1F6), IL-36β (IL-1F8), and IL-36γ (IL-1F9) are members of the IL-1 family of cytokines. These cytokines bind to IL-36R (IL-1Rrp2) and IL-1RAcP, activating similar intracellular signals as IL-1, whereas IL-36Ra (IL-1F5) acts as an IL-36R antagonist (IL-36Ra). In this study, we show that both murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and(More)
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) superfamily of cytokines comprises a set of pivotal mediators of inflammation. Among them, the action of IL-36 cytokines in immune responses has remained elusive. In a recent study, we demonstrated a direct effect of IL-36 on immune cells. Here we show that, among T cells, the IL-36 receptor is predominantly expressed on naive(More)
Although accurate estimates of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are crucial for any effective resource management or pest control programme, this species is well-known to be difficult to monitor. We conducted a 10-year study in a fenced Mediterranean forest (Rome, Italy) to evaluate nocturnal line transect sampling performances. We focused on its accuracy(More)
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide help to B cells and are crucial for establishment of germinal center (GC) reactions, including production of high-affinity antibodies and generation of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells. Here we report that the magnitude of the Tfh cell response was dictated by the amount of antigen and directly correlated(More)
Invariant NKT cells are important regulators of T cell immunity and autoimmunity. In this review we describe evidence that supports their regulatory role in the prevention of autoimmune disease. Moreover, we will discuss the current knowledge on iNKT cell biology, antigen recognition, acquisition of a specific cytokine profile, and mechanism of action that(More)
A prerequisite for establishment of mutualism between the host and the microbial community that inhabits the large intestine is the stringent mucosal compartmentalization of microorganisms. Microbe-loaded dendritic cells trafficking through lymphatics are arrested at the mesenteric lymph nodes, which constitute the firewall of the intestinal lymphatic(More)
The regulatory function of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells for tolerance induction and prevention of autoimmunity is linked to a specific cytokine profile that comprises the secretion of type 2 cytokines like IL-4 and IL-10 (NKT2 cytokine profile). The mechanism responsible for iNKT cell differentiation toward a type 2 phenotype is unknown. Herein we show that(More)
Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical(More)
CD4(+) Th17 are heterogeneous in terms of cytokine production and capacity to initiate autoimmune diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we demonstrate that experimental priming of encephalitogenic Th cells expressing RORγt and T-bet and producing IL-17A, IFN-γ and GM-CSF but not IL-10 (Th1/Th17), is dependent on the(More)