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Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) codes for 9 alternatively spliced transcripts and 2 major regulatory proteins named Tax and Rex that function at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, respectively. We investigated the temporal sequence of HTLV-1 gene expression in primary cells from infected patients using splice site-specific(More)
The Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay (NMD) regulates the expression of many genes such as GADD45a and lead to the degradation of mRNA exhibiting a premature STOP codon (PTC). The cellular protein INT6 has been identified by our team as a major actor of this pathway. We also demonstrated that INT6 interacts with Tax, the transcriptional activator of HTLV-1 that(More)
The discovery of human retroviruses in the early 1980s revealed the existence of viral-encoded non-structural genes that were not evident in previously described animal retroviruses. Based on the absence or presence of these additional genes retroviruses were classified as 'simple' and 'complex', respectively. Expression of most of these extra genes is(More)
HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 share broad similarities in their overall genetic organization and expression pattern, but they differ substantially in their pathogenic properties. This review outlines distinctive features of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 that might provide clues to explain their distinct clinical outcomes. Differences in the kinetics of viral mRNA expression,(More)
Human T cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) are genetically related complex retroviruses that are capable of immortalizing human T-cells in vitro and establish life-long persistent infections in vivo. In spite of these apparent similarities, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 exhibit a significantly different pathogenic potential. HTLV-1 is recognized as(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) are delta retroviruses that share a common overall genetic organization, splicing pattern, and ability to infect and immortalize T-cells in vitro. However, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 exhibit a clearly distinct pathogenic potential in infected patients. To find clues to the possible viral determinants of(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) are delta retroviruses with similar genetic organization. Although both viruses immortalize T-cells in vitro, they exhibit distinct pathogenic potential in vivo. To search for possible differences in its expression strategy with respect to HTLV-1, we investigated the pattern of HTLV-2 expression(More)
Retrovirus HTLV-1 gene circuit is characterized by positive and negative feedback phenomena, thus candidating it as a potential relaxation oscillator deliverable into eukaryotes. Here we describe a model of HTLV-1 which, by providing predictions of genes and proteins kinetics, can be helpful for designing gene circuits for eukaryotes, or for optimizing gene(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) expression depends on the concerted action of Tax, which enhances transcription of the viral genome, and Rex, which favours expression of incompletely spliced mRNAs. In the present study we investigated the influence of Rex on the nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning of the complete set of alternatively spliced HTLV-1(More)
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) gene expression is controlled by the key regulatory proteins Tax and Rex. The concerted action of these proteins results in a two-phase kinetics of viral expression that depends on a time delay between their action. However, it is difficult to explain this delay, as Tax and Rex are produced from the same mRNA. In(More)