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Microglia respond rapidly to injury, increasing their synthesis and release of inflammatory mediators, many of which contribute to the maintenance of persistent pain following CNS or PNS injury. We have recently shown that the lysosomal cysteine protease Cathepsin S (CatS) expressed by spinal microglia is vital for the full expression of neuropathic pain.(More)
N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid ethanolamide, plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response and pain through, among others, activation of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α). Endogenous cannabinoids play a protective role in several central nervous system (CNS) disorders, particularly those(More)
Plastic changes in the amygdala and limbic cortex networks have been widely shown in chronic pain. We have here investigated the role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) pre-infra-limbic (PL-IL) divisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neuron connections after carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain(More)
The current study has investigated the involvement of periaqueductal gray (PAG) metabotropic glutamate subtype 7 and 8 receptors (mGluR(7) and mGluR(8)) in modulating rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) ongoing and tail flick-related on and off cell activities. Our study has also investigated the role of PAG mGluR(7) on thermoceptive threshold and PAG(More)
We showed previously that inhibiting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid degrading enzyme, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels with the same molecule, the naturally occurring N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), produces more efficacious anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic actions than the targeting of FAAH(More)
The purinergic system is highly involved in the regulation of microglial physiological processes. In addition to the accepted roles for the P2 X4,7 and P2 Y12 receptors activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate, respectively, recent evidence suggests a role for the adenosine A2A receptor in microglial cytoskeletal rearrangements.(More)
We have studied the involvement of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) glycine site and the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (VL-PAG) on nociceptive behavior (tail flick) and pain-related changes on neuronal activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Glycine or D-serine increased the(More)
d-Aspartate (d-Asp) is a free d-amino acid detected in multiple brain regions and putative precursor of endogenous N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) acting as agonist at NMDA receptors. In this study, we investigated whether d-Asp (20 mM) in drinking solution for 1 month affects pain responses and pain-related emotional, and cognitive behaviour in a model of(More)
Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or sensitized(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of prostaglandin EP1 receptor within the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (VL PAG). The role of VL PAG EP1 receptor in controlling thermonociception and rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) activity in healthy and neuropathic rats was also examined. EP1 receptor was indeed found to be expressed within(More)