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Dendritic cells (DCs) are strong activators of primary T cell responses. Their priming ability is acquired upon encounter with maturation stimuli. To identify the genes that are differentially expressed upon maturation induced by exposure to Gram-negative bacteria, a kinetic study of DC gene expression was done with microarrays representing 11,000 genes and(More)
The signals controlling the checkpoints of dendritic cells (DC) maturation and the correlation between phenotypical and functional maturational stages were investigated in a defined model system of growth factor-dependent immature mouse DC. Three sequential stages of DC maturation (immature, mature, and apoptotic) were defined and characterized. Immature DC(More)
The transport of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) to various organelles has emerged as an essential means by which innate immunity is regulated. While most of our knowledge is restricted to regulators that promote the transport of newly synthesized receptors, the regulators that control TLR transport after microbial detection remain unknown. Here, we report that(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) can provide all the known costimulatory signals required for activation of unprimed T cells and are the most efficient and perhaps the critical antigen presenting cells in the induction of primary T cell-mediated immune responses. It is now shown that mouse cell lines with many of the features of DC can be generated using the MIB phi(More)
The basic research in cell biology and in medical sciences makes large use of imaging tools mainly based on confocal fluorescence and, more recently, on non-linear excitation microscopy. Substantially the aim is the recognition of selected targets in the image and their tracking in time. We have developed a particle tracking algorithm optimized for low(More)
Neuropathic pain remains a prevalent clinical problem because it is often poorly responsive to the currently used analgesics, thus it is crucial the identification of new potential targets and drugs. Recent evidence indicated that microglial cells in the spinal cord are critically involved in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, with a(More)
Neonatal microglial cells respond to GM-CSF and M-CSF by acquiring different morphologies and phenotypes. To investigate the extent and consequences of this process, a global gene expression analysis was performed, with significant changes in transcript levels confirmed by biochemical analyses. Primary murine microglial cells underwent substantial(More)
Viral infection is sometimes associated with the initiation or exacerbation of autoimmune disease, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One proposed mechanism is that viral determinants that mimic host antigens trigger self-reactive T cell clones to destroy host tissue. An epitope expressed by a coat protein of herpes simplex virus-type 1(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best characterized pattern recognition receptors. Individual TLRs recruit diverse combinations of adaptor proteins, triggering signal transduction pathways and leading to the activation of various transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappaB, activation protein 1 and interferon regulatory factors. Interleukin-2(More)
Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a scavenger receptor expressed in peritoneal macrophages and in a subpopulation of macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen and in the medullary cord of lymph nodes. By global gene expression analysis, it has been found that the MARCO mRNA was one of the most up-regulated in splenic dendritic(More)