Francesca Granucci

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Penetration of the gut mucosa by pathogens expressing invasion genes is believed to occur mainly through specialized epithelial cells, called M cells, that are located in Peyer's patches. However, Salmonella typhimurium that are deficient in invasion genes encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) are still able to reach the spleen after oral(More)
The transport of Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) to various organelles has emerged as an essential means by which innate immunity is regulated. While most of our knowledge is restricted to regulators that promote the transport of newly synthesized receptors, the regulators that control TLR transport after microbial detection remain unknown. Here, we report that(More)
The signals controlling the checkpoints of dendritic cells (DC) maturation and the correlation between phenotypical and functional maturational stages were investigated in a defined model system of growth factor-dependent immature mouse DC. Three sequential stages of DC maturation (immature, mature, and apoptotic) were defined and characterized. Immature DC(More)
Neuropathic pain remains a prevalent clinical problem because it is often poorly responsive to the currently used analgesics, thus it is crucial the identification of new potential targets and drugs. Recent evidence indicated that microglial cells in the spinal cord are critically involved in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, with a(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are strong activators of primary T cell responses. Their priming ability is acquired upon encounter with maturation stimuli. To identify the genes that are differentially expressed upon maturation induced by exposure to Gram-negative bacteria, a kinetic study of DC gene expression was done with microarrays representing 11,000 genes and(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), measles and HIV are the main human pathogens known to induce immunosuppression. Unlike measles and HIV, and despite the availability of a well studied animal model, little is known about the mechanisms that control CMV-induced immunosuppression. We hypothesized that dendritic cells (DCs), which are crucial in generating and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best characterized pattern recognition receptors. Individual TLRs recruit diverse combinations of adaptor proteins, triggering signal transduction pathways and leading to the activation of various transcription factors, including nuclear factor kappaB, activation protein 1 and interferon regulatory factors. Interleukin-2(More)
We have developed a method to generate immortalized phagocytic and dendritic cell clones from various mouse tissues such as spleen, thymus, brain and bone marrow. The clones were phenotypically characterized and shown to retain the ability to respond to immune or inflammatory signals, e.g., IFN-gamma. Functional cytokine activity and nitric oxide production(More)
Neonatal microglial cells respond to GM-CSF and M-CSF by acquiring different morphologies and phenotypes. To investigate the extent and consequences of this process, a global gene expression analysis was performed, with significant changes in transcript levels confirmed by biochemical analyses. Primary murine microglial cells underwent substantial(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential players in the innate immune response to invading pathogens. Although extensive research efforts have provided a considerable wealth of information on how TLRs function, substantial gaps in our knowledge still prevent the definition of a complete picture of TLR signaling. However, several recent studies describe(More)