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An enriched environment consists of a combination of enhanced social relations, physical exercise and interactions with non-social stimuli that leads to behavioral and neuronal modifications. In the present study, we analyzed the behavioral effects of environmental complexity on different facets of spatial function, and we assessed dendritic arborisation(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), localized to the lentiform nucleus, was carried out in 12 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), seven patients with multiple-system atrophy (MSA), seven patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 10 healthy age-matched controls. The study assessed the level of N-acetylaspartate(More)
RATIONALE Experimental studies have investigated the effects of chronic donepezil treatment on the behavioral deficits elicited by reduced activity or the loss of cholinergic neurons that occurs in aging or in models of dementia. However, few studies have analyzed the effects of chronic donepezil treatment on the cognitive functions of intact animals. (More)
PURPOSE To assess the role of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in detecting biochemical abnormalities in neuronal migration disorders (NMDs). METHODS We performed 1H-MRS studies on 17 brain NMD areas [five polymicrogyria, eight subcortical heterotopia, and four cortical dysplasia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)]. The study group consisted of(More)
To experimentally verify the reserve hypothesis, the influence of rearing conditions on the cognitive performances and on dendritic spines following basal forebrain lesions was analyzed. Adult rats reared in enriched or standard conditions were depleted of the cholinergic projection to the neocortex by 192 IgG-saporin injection into Ch4 region of basal(More)
The aim of the study was to use functional transcranial Doppler to investigate the possibility of revealing different activation patterns during healthy subjects' performance of meaningful and meaningless actions. Mean flow velocity (MFV) changes were recorded in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of 26 normal subjects during a rest phase and during(More)
To acquire knowledge about the environment two types of learning are necessary: declarative localizatory learning about where environmental cues and the subject are, and procedural learning about how to explore and move around the environment. Experimental data indicate that hippocampal regions are involved in spatial learning, playing a key role in(More)
Experimental data support the involvement of cerebellar circuits in the acquisition of spatial procedural competences. Since the ability to acquire new procedural competences is lost when cerebellar regions are lesioned or when NMDA receptor activity is blocked, we analyzed whether the learning of explorative strategies is affected by blocking NMDA receptor(More)
PURPOSE To test whether activation of NMDA receptors is required for the maintenance of the posture and motor behavior recovered from cerebellar lesions, an NMDA antagonist (CGS 19755) was systemically administered to totally or partially cerebellectomized rats. METHODS Three groups of animals were tested: rats that had undergone a total cerebellectomy(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) is considered a suitable investigation technique for obtaining in vivo information on pathological changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. The main betabolites identified are choline-containing compounds, creatine, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), lactate, mobile lipids, myo-inositol, glutamate and glutamine.(More)