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Reproduction cannot take place without the proper functioning of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHR). When the LHR does not work properly, ovulation does not occur in females and Leydig cells do not develop normally in the male. Also, because the LHR is essential for sustaining the elevated levels of progesterone needed to maintain pregnancy(More)
There is evidence for strong functional antagonistic interactions between adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). Although a close physical interaction between both receptors has recently been shown using co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays, the existence of a A2AR-D2R protein-protein interaction still had to be(More)
We have characterized the pharmacological antagonism, i.e., neutral antagonism or inverse agonism, displayed by a number of alpha-blockers at two alpha1-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes, alpha(1a)- and alpha(1b)-AR. Constitutively activating mutations were introduced into the alpha(1a)-AR at the position homologous to A293 of the alpha(1b)-AR where(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulations of the alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor (AR) were combined to explore the potential molecular changes correlated with the transition from R (inactive state) to R (active state). Using molecular dynamics analysis we compared the structural/dynamic features of constitutively active mutants with those of(More)
Cysteine351 is the site for pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation in the G protein Gi1 alpha. Alteration of this residue, or the equivalent cysteine in other Gi-family G proteins, has been used to examine specific interactions between receptors and these G proteins. However, no systematic analysis has been performed to determine the quantitative effect(More)
Formation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) into dimers and higher order oligomers represents a key mechanism in pleiotropic signaling, yet how individual protomers function within oligomers remains poorly understood. We present a super-resolution imaging approach, resolving single GPCR molecules to ∼ 8 nm resolution in functional asymmetric dimers and(More)
Emerging evidence shows that G protein-coupled receptors can form homo- and heteromers. These include adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor heteromers, which are most probably localized in the dendritic spines of the striatopallidal GABAergic neurons, where they are in a position to modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission. The discovery of A(2A)(More)
Autophagy is a major protein degradation pathway, essential for stress-induced and constitutive protein turnover. In nervous tissue, autophagy is constitutively active and crucial to neuronal survival. The efficiency of the autophagic pathway reportedly undergoes age-related decline, and autophagy defects are observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Since(More)
Wordom is a versatile, user-friendly, and efficient program for manipulation and analysis of molecular structures and dynamics. The following new analysis modules have been added since the publication of the original Wordom paper in 2007: assignment of secondary structure, calculation of solvent accessible surfaces, elastic network model, motion cross(More)