Francesca Dominici

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CONTEXT Ozone has been associated with various adverse health effects, including increased rates of hospital admissions and exacerbation of respiratory illnesses. Although numerous time-series studies have estimated associations between day-to-day variation in ozone levels and mortality counts, results have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE To investigate(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic time-series studies conducted in a number of cities have identified, in general, an association between daily changes in concentration of ambient particulate matter (PM) and daily number of deaths (mortality). Increased hospitalization (a measure of morbidity) among the elderly for specific causes has also been associated with PM.(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution in cities has been linked to increased rates of mortality and morbidity in developed and developing countries. Although these findings have helped lead to a tightening of air-quality standards, their validity with respect to public health has been questioned. METHODS We assessed the effects of five major outdoor-air pollutants on(More)
This article presents findings from updated analyses of data from 90 U.S. cities assembled for the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS). The data were analyzed with a generalized additive model (GAM) using the gamfunction in S-Plus (with default convergence criteria previously used and with more stringent criteria) and with a(More)
CONTEXT Evidence on the health risks associated with short-term exposure to fine particles (particulate matter < or =2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter [PM2.5]) is limited. Results from the new national monitoring network for PM2.5 make possible systematic research on health risks at national and regional scales. OBJECTIVES To estimate risks of(More)
BACKGROUND Although many time-series studies of ozone and mortality have identified positive associations, others have yielded null or inconclusive results, making the results of these studies difficult to interpret. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of 144 effect estimates from 39 time-series studies, and estimated pooled effects by lags, age groups,(More)
The widely used generalized additive models (GAM) method is a flexible and effective technique for conducting nonlinear regression analysis in time-series studies of the health effects of air pollution. When the data to which the GAM are being applied have two characteristics--1) the estimated regression coefficients are small and 2) there exist confounding(More)
The Health Effects Institute, established in 1980, is an independent and unbiased source of information on the health effects of motor vehicle emissions. HEI supports research on all major pollutants, including regulated pollutants (such as carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter) and unregulated pollutants (such as diesel engine(More)
Misclassification of exposure is a well-recognized inherent limitation of epidemiologic studies of disease and the environment. For many agents of interest, exposures take place over time and in multiple locations; accurately estimating the relevant exposures for an individual participant in epidemiologic studies is often daunting, particularly within the(More)
RATIONALE There are unexplained geographical and seasonal differences in the short-term effects of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on human health. The hypothesis has been advanced to include the possibility that such differences might be due to variations in the PM(2.5) chemical composition, but evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. (More)