Francesca Chiaromonte

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Six measures of evolutionary change in the human genome were studied, three derived from the aligned human and mouse genomes in conjunction with the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, consisting of (1) nucleotide substitution per fourfold degenerate site in coding regions, (2) nucleotide substitution per site in relics of transposable elements active only(More)
Insertions and deletions (indels) cause numerous genetic diseases and lead to pronounced evolutionary differences among genomes. The macaque sequences provide an opportunity to gain insights into the mechanisms generating these mutations on a genome-wide scale by establishing the polarity of indels occurring in the human lineage since its divergence from(More)
The genetic structure of the indigenous hunter-gatherer peoples of southern Africa, the oldest known lineage of modern human, is important for understanding human diversity. Studies based on mitochondrial and small sets of nuclear markers have shown that these hunter-gatherers, known as Khoisan, San, or Bushmen, are genetically divergent from other humans.(More)
The parameters by which alignments are scored can strongly affect sensitivity and specificity of alignment procedures. While appropriate parameter choices are well understood for protein alignments, much less is known for genomic DNA sequences. We describe a straightforward approach to scoring nucleotide substitutions in genomic sequence alignments,(More)
Techniques of comparative genomics are being used to identify candidate functional DNA sequences, and objective evaluations are needed to assess their effectiveness. Different analytical methods score distinctive features of whole-genome alignments among human, mouse, and rat to predict functional regions. We evaluated three of these methods for their(More)
BACKGROUND Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolites can regulate gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we use multi-network analysis of microarray data to identify molecular networks regulated by C and N in the Arabidopsis root system. RESULTS We used the Arabidopsis whole genome Affymetrix gene chip to explore global gene expression responses in(More)
Male mutation bias is a higher mutation rate in males than in females thought to result from the greater number of germ line cell divisions in males. If errors in DNA replication cause most mutations, then the magnitude of male mutation bias, measured as the male-to-female mutation rate ratio (alpha), should reflect the relative excess of male versus female(More)
BACKGROUND The evolutionary distance between human and macaque is particularly attractive for investigating local variation in neutral substitution rates, because substitutions can be inferred more reliably than in comparisons with rodents and are less influenced by the effects of current and ancient diversity than in comparisons with closer primates. Here(More)
We generalize the computation of the Regulatory Potential (RP) score from two-way alignments of human and mouse to three-way alignments of human, mouse, and rat. This requires overcoming technical challenges that arise because the complexity of the models underlying the score increases exponentially with the number of species. Despite the close evolutionary(More)
Microsatellites are abundant in eukaryotic genomes and have high rates of strand slippage-induced repeat number alterations. They are popular genetic markers, and their mutations are associated with numerous neurological diseases. However, the minimal number of repeats required to constitute a microsatellite has been debated, and a definition of a(More)