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The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human(More)
The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete(More)
Advances in DNA sequencing technology have fueled a rapid increase in the number of sequenced vertebrate genomes, and we anticipate an explosion in the number of genomes sequenced in the near future. Detecting similarities between genomes is a valuable technique in discovering functional elements, and sequence alignment is the primary tool for discovering(More)
Six measures of evolutionary change in the human genome were studied, three derived from the aligned human and mouse genomes in conjunction with the Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, consisting of (1) nucleotide substitution per fourfold degenerate site in coding regions, (2) nucleotide substitution per site in relics of transposable elements active only(More)
BACKGROUND Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolites can regulate gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we use multi-network analysis of microarray data to identify molecular networks regulated by C and N in the Arabidopsis root system. RESULTS We used the Arabidopsis whole genome Affymetrix gene chip to explore global gene expression responses in(More)
Mutation rates of microsatellites vary greatly among loci. The causes of this heterogeneity remain largely enigmatic yet are crucial for understanding numerous human neurological diseases and genetic instability in cancer. In this first genome-wide study, the relative contributions of intrinsic features and regional genomic factors to the variation in(More)
The transcription factor GATA1 regulates an extensive program of gene activation and repression during erythroid development. However, the associated mechanisms, including the contributions of distal versus proximal cis-regulatory modules, co-occupancy with other transcription factors, and the effects of histone modifications, are poorly understood. We(More)
The genetic structure of the indigenous hunter-gatherer peoples of southern Africa, the oldest known lineage of modern human, is important for understanding human diversity. Studies based on mitochondrial and small sets of nuclear markers have shown that these hunter-gatherers, known as Khoisan, San, or Bushmen, are genetically divergent from other humans.(More)
recently become available for two mammalian genomes, human (Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001) and mouse (Waterston et al. 2002). This raises the possibility of using comparative genomics to estimate what fraction of the human genome evolves under purifying selection. Lacking genomes of other mammals, this comparative exercise is still in its(More)
Microsatellites--tandem repeats of short DNA motifs--are abundant in the human genome and have high mutation rates. While microsatellite instability is implicated in numerous genetic diseases, the molecular processes involved in their emergence and disappearance are still not well understood. Microsatellites are hypothesized to follow a life cycle, wherein(More)