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HNF-4 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4) is a protein enriched in liver extracts that binds to sites required for the transcription of the genes for transthyretin (TTR), the carrier protein in the serum for vitamin A and thyroid hormone, and for apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), a major constituent of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Synthetic(More)
The core promoter of eukaryotic genes is the minimal DNA region that recruits the basal transcription machinery to direct efficient and accurate transcription initiation. The fraction of human and yeast genes that contain specific core promoter elements such as the TATA box and the initiator (INR) remains unclear and core promoter motifs specific for(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4alpha), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is essential for liver function and is linked to several diseases including diabetes, hemophilia, atherosclerosis, and hepatitis. Although many DNA response elements and target genes have been identified for HNF4alpha, the complete repertoire of binding(More)
CBP/p300 recruitment to enhancer-bound complexes is a key determinant in promoter activation by many transcription factors. We present a novel mechanism of activating such complexes and show that pre-assembled Elk-1-p300 complexes become activated following Elk-1 phosphorylation by changes in Elk-1-p300 interactions rather than recruitment. It is known that(More)
Although transcriptional hierarchies have been extensively studied in invertebrates, their involvement in mammalian cell-type specification is poorly understood. Here we report a hepatocyte transcriptional cascade suggested by the expression patterns of hepatic transcription factors in dedifferentiated hepatomas and hepatocyte: fibroblast hybrids in which(More)
Epithelial formation is a central facet of organogenesis that relies on intercellular junction assembly to create functionally distinct apical and basal cell surfaces. How this process is regulated during embryonic development remains obscure. Previous studies using conditional knockout mice have shown that loss of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4), a highly conserved member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily critical for development and liver-specific gene expression, is very similar to another superfamily member, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha), in overall amino acid sequence and DNA binding specificity. Since RXR alpha is known to heterodimerize(More)
Glucocorticoids stimulate hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC 4.1.1.32) gene expression, thereby increasing the rate of gluconeogenesis. The effect of glucocorticoids on PEPCK gene expression is mediated by a set of promoter elements collectively referred to as the glucocorticoid response unit. The response unit spans a 100-bp segment and(More)
Transcription factors, such as nuclear receptors, often exist in various forms that are generated by highly conserved splicing events. Whereas the functional significance of these splicing variants is often not known, it is known that nuclear receptors activate transcription through interaction with coactivators. The parameters, other than ligands, that(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4alpha) is a transcription factor that has been shown to be required for hepatocyte differentiation and development of the liver. It has also been implicated in regulating expression of genes that act in the epithelium of the lower gastrointestinal tract. This implied that HNF4alpha might be required(More)