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Although transcriptional hierarchies have been extensively studied in invertebrates, their involvement in mammalian cell-type specification is poorly understood. Here we report a hepatocyte transcriptional cascade suggested by the expression patterns of hepatic transcription factors in dedifferentiated hepatomas and hepatocyte: fibroblast hybrids in which(More)
Transcription factors, such as nuclear receptors, often exist in various forms that are generated by highly conserved splicing events. Whereas the functional significance of these splicing variants is often not known, it is known that nuclear receptors activate transcription through interaction with coactivators. The parameters, other than ligands, that(More)
Here we present the Transcription Factor Encyclopedia (TFe), a new web-based compendium of mini review articles on transcription factors (TFs) that is founded on the principles of open access and collaboration. Our consortium of over 100 researchers has collectively contributed over 130 mini review articles on pertinent human, mouse and rat TFs. Notable(More)
Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate gene expression by binding specific DNA sequences consisting of AG[G/T]TCA or AGAACA half site motifs in a variety of configurations. However, those motifs/configurations alone do not adequately explain the diversity of NR function in vivo. Here, a systematic examination of DNA binding specificity by protein-binding(More)
High blood cholesterol has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. The enzyme HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) is responsible for cholesterol synthesis, and inhibitors of this enzyme (statins) have been used clinically to control blood cholesterol. Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) -2 is a key transcription factor in cholesterol metabolism,(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4), a highly conserved member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily critical for development and liver-specific gene expression, is very similar to another superfamily member, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha), in overall amino acid sequence and DNA binding specificity. Since RXR alpha is known to heterodimerize(More)
Orphan nuclear receptors have been instrumental in identifying novel signaling pathways and therapeutic targets. However, identification of ligands for these receptors has often been based on random compound screens or other biased approaches. As a result, it remains unclear in many cases if the reported ligands are the true endogenous ligands,--i.e., the(More)
Even though every cell in an organism contains the same genetic material, each cell does not express the same cohort of genes. Therefore, one of the major problems facing genomic research today is to determine not only which genes are differentially expressed and under what conditions, but also how the expression of those genes is regulated. The first step(More)
OBJECTIVE The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is implicated in vascular biology because AMPK can phosphorylate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In this study, we investigate the regulation of the AMPK-eNOS pathway in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by shear stress and the activation of aortic AMPK in a mouse model with a high level of(More)