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BACKGROUND Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, in part because of the unique end-use qualities conferred by the abundant glutamine- and proline-rich gluten proteins. Many wheat flour proteins also present dietary problems for consumers with celiac disease or wheat allergies. Despite the importance of these proteins it has been(More)
By contrast to chloroplasts, our knowledge of amyloplasts--organelles that synthesize and store starch in heterotrophic plant tissues--is in a formative stage. While our understanding of what is considered their primary function, i.e. the biosynthesis and degradation of starch, has increased dramatically in recent years, relatively little is known about(More)
BACKGROUND The gamma gliadins are a complex group of proteins that together with other gluten proteins determine the functional properties of wheat flour. The proteins have unusually high levels of glutamine and proline and contain large regions of repetitive sequences. While most gamma gliadins are monomeric proteins containing eight conserved cysteine(More)
BACKGROUND By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA) detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the(More)
BACKGROUND Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. These proteins have more balanced amino acid compositions than the major wheat gluten proteins and contribute important reserves for both seedling growth and human nutrition.(More)
BACKGROUND Mineral nutrition during wheat grain development has large effects on wheat flour protein content and composition, which in turn affect flour quality and immunogenic potential for a commodity of great economic value. However, it has been difficult to define the precise effects of mineral nutrition on protein composition because of the complexity(More)
Ca(2+) uptake by membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM72) roots was characterized. Uptake of (45)Ca(2+) was measured in membrane vesicles obtained from continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients. A single, large peak of Ca(2+) uptake coincided with the peak of proton transport by the tonoplast H(+)-ATPase. Depending on the(More)
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