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By contrast to chloroplasts, our knowledge of amyloplasts--organelles that synthesize and store starch in heterotrophic plant tissues--is in a formative stage. While our understanding of what is considered their primary function, i.e. the biosynthesis and degradation of starch, has increased dramatically in recent years, relatively little is known about(More)
BACKGROUND Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, in part because of the unique end-use qualities conferred by the abundant glutamine- and proline-rich gluten proteins. Many wheat flour proteins also present dietary problems for consumers with celiac disease or wheat allergies. Despite the importance of these proteins it has been(More)
The effects of NO(3) (-) and assay temperature on proton translocating ATPases in membranes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv California Mariout 72) roots were examined. The membranes were fractionated on continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients and proton transport was assayed by monitoring the fluorescence of acridine orange. A peak of H(+)-ATPase at(More)
Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), tonoplast and Golgi membranes (TG) and plasma membranes (PM) were prepared from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots and the lipid compositions of the three fractions were analyzed and compared. Plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution with or without 100 millimolar NaCl. Each(More)
The omega-gliadins encoded on chromosome 1 of the A genome were purified from Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6 x=42, AABBDD) cv. Butte86, nullisomic 1D-tetrasomic 1A of cv. Chinese Spring (CS N1DT1A), and the diploid T. urartu (2n=2 x=14, AA ). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel(More)
BACKGROUND The gamma gliadins are a complex group of proteins that together with other gluten proteins determine the functional properties of wheat flour. The proteins have unusually high levels of glutamine and proline and contain large regions of repetitive sequences. While most gamma gliadins are monomeric proteins containing eight conserved cysteine(More)
BACKGROUND By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA) detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the(More)
Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv CM-72) root tonoplast was induced by Na(+) even in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis. Induction occurred with a half-time of only 15 minutes. When salt-treated roots were transferred to a nutrient solution containing no Na(+), the activity disappeared with a similar time course. The(More)
Tonoplast and plasma membranes (PM) were isolated from barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. cv California Mariout 72) using sucrose step gradients. The isolation procedure yielded sufficient quantities of PM and tonoplast vesicles that were sealed and of the right orientation to measure ATP-dependent proton transport in vitro. The proteins of the endoplasmic(More)
The effect of temperature on the rate of proton transport and ATP hydrolysis by plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast (TN) ATPases from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots were compared. Rates of proton transport were estimated using the fluorescent amine dyes quinacrine and acridine orange. The ratio between rate of transport and ATP hydrolysis was(More)