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Assessment of the functional competencies of patients with dementia is typically conducted in an indirect manner. Psychological tests of cognition or descriptions by relatives or other caregivers are often used to make judgments as to the patient's ability to adapt to the demands of the environment. However, these methods have built-in biases. The need for(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive impairment is a common consequence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and dementia is one of the diseases that defines the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Peptide T (d-ala-peptide-T-amide) has been reported to block the binding of gp120 to brain tissue and to protect neurons from the toxic effects of gp120 in vitro. In(More)
HIV-1-associated cognitive impairment has only been preliminarily investigated for associations with mortality. The authors examined 119 HIV-1-positive homosexual men (asymptomatic: n = 96; early symptomatic: n = 23). At follow-up (to 3.5 years), there were 105 survivors and 14 nonsurvivors. Those at the 25th percentile in response speeds and in long-term(More)
Recent evidence suggests that specific types of intrusive errors may occur more often in the protocols of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients than in those of patients diagnosed with other types of dementia. Using the FULD Object Memory Evaluation, we documented the occurrence of five qualitatively different types of intrusive errors for mildly and moderately(More)
Relatively little is known about cognitive changes in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study examined cognitive functioning in 46 HIV-positive gay men relative to an age and education equivalent group of 13 HIV-negative gay men. The HIV-positive men were asymptomatic except for lymphadenopathy or T4 counts less than 700. The(More)
HIV-1 infection of brain may be associated with multiple treatment targets, only the most severe of which is represented by HAD. Focusing on earlier treatment targets such as MCMD and cognitive-motor impairment in the absence of any clinical disorder (as well as neuroprotection) may prove to be of greater clinical utility in the treatment and prevention of(More)
OBJECTIVE An examination of the relationship of plasma cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) level to overall psychological distress, specific mood states, and major depressive disorder was conducted in 159 bereaved men (90 HIV-1(+) and 69 HIV-1(-)). METHODS The relationship of a continuous measure of cobalamin level to psychological distress was examined, while(More)
Serial rote learning was examined as a function of sex, verbal ability (average and high), and stimulus presentation rate (4 and 10 sec.) among 64 individuals aged 60-79 years. At the fast pacing speed, the men with average skills produced fewer responses and performed less well than their female counterparts whose performance was similar to that of the(More)
A neuropsychological battery for testing HIV-1-infected individuals in Spanish was developed. We refer to this battery as the HIV/University of Miami Annotated Neuropsychological test battery in Spanish (HUMANS). The HUMANS battery includes recommendations of the National Institute of Mental Health Neuropsychology Workgroup on HIV-1 infection and measures(More)
Memory loss, as measured by the Wechsler Memory scale was examined as a function of diastolic blood pressure during a 6.5-year follow-up period among individuals initially tested in their 60's. On the initial testing, memory was not related to blood pressure. At the end of the follow-up period, the hypertensives showed greater impairment in memory for(More)