Frances J. R. Richmond

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Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in < or = 12 neck muscles in four alert monkeys whose heads were unrestrained to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of neck muscle activation accompanying a large range of head postures and movements. Some head postures and movements were elicited by training animals to generate gaze shifts to visual(More)
Feline caudofemoralis (CF) is a promising preparation in which to study the properties of mammalian fast-twitch skeletal muscle, but little is known about its muscle fiber properties, architecture, and motor innervation. We used histochemical techniques to confirm that it contained predominantly type IIB fibers (95±2%, n=8, with six of eight muscles(More)
Natural head movements in alert, unrestrained cats were studied using video-filming, videofluoroscopy and electromyographic (EMG) recording methods. In each cat, up to sixteen neck muscles or neck-muscle compartments were implanted with recording electrodes. Patterns of muscle recruitment were examined during systematically-selected behavioral epochs in(More)
STUDY DESIGN Cadaveric dissections were used to study muscle morphometry. OBJECTIVE To describe systematically the musculotendinous lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles, and physiologic cross-sectional areas of neck and shoulder muscles implicated in head movement. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA In previous studies of neck-muscle anatomy, researchers(More)
The cat hindlimb contains several long, biarticular strap muscles composed of parallel muscle fascicles that attach to short tendons. Three of these muscles--sartorius, tenuissimus, and semitendinosus--were studied by dissecting individual gold-stained fibers and determining the surface distribution of acetylcholinesterase-stained end-plate zones. In each(More)
Transganglionic transport of HRP has been used to trace the pathways and termination sites of cutaneous and muscle afferent axons entering from the C2 and C3 dorsal rami. The muscle afferent projection in the spinal cord is restricted and (apart from the ventral horn) largely confined to the intermediate gray matter. There is a muscle afferent projection to(More)
Morphometric methods were used to describe the musculotendinous lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles, and cross-sectional areas of neck muscles in adult Macaca mulatta monkeys. Additionally, muscles were frozen, sectioned, and stained for ATPase activity to determine fiber-type composition. Individual rhesus muscles were found to vary widely in their(More)
1. Single-fiber recording was used to examine the properties of 107 spindle endings in cat biventer cervicis (BC) and complexus (CM) muscles. Responses of receptors were examined following muscle contraction and ramp and hold stretch. Twenty-two endings in splenius (SP) were also examined, but their responses could not be quantitated because the anatomy of(More)