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Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in < or = 12 neck muscles in four alert monkeys whose heads were unrestrained to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of neck muscle activation accompanying a large range of head postures and movements. Some head postures and movements were elicited by training animals to generate gaze shifts to visual(More)
The cat hindlimb contains several long, biarticular strap muscles composed of parallel muscle fascicles that attach to short tendons. Three of these muscles--sartorius, tenuissimus, and semitendinosus--were studied by dissecting individual gold-stained fibers and determining the surface distribution of acetylcholinesterase-stained end-plate zones. In each(More)
The fiber architecture of adult human sartorius and gracilis muscles was examined using a combination of fiber microdissections and histological methods. Intact fibers were dissected from fascicles of muscle strips that were digested in nitric acid. All of these fibers terminate intrafascicularly by tapering to a fine strand at one or both ends. They(More)
Transganglionic transport of HRP has been used to trace the pathways and termination sites of cutaneous and muscle afferent axons entering from the C2 and C3 dorsal rami. The muscle afferent projection in the spinal cord is restricted and (apart from the ventral horn) largely confined to the intermediate gray matter. There is a muscle afferent projection to(More)
Feline caudofemoralis (CF) is a promising preparation in which to study the properties of mammalian fast-twitch skeletal muscle, but little is known about its muscle fiber properties, architecture, and motor innervation. We used histochemical techniques to confirm that it contained predominantly type IIB fibers (95+/-2%, n=8, with six of eight muscles(More)
STUDY DESIGN Cadaveric dissections were used to study muscle morphometry. OBJECTIVE To describe systematically the musculotendinous lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles, and physiologic cross-sectional areas of neck and shoulder muscles implicated in head movement. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA In previous studies of neck-muscle anatomy, researchers(More)
Splenius is a structurally complex muscle that is supplied by nerves from four cervical segments. We have examined the architectural organization of extrafusal fibers in splenius by microdissecting muscles stained "en bloc" with gold chloride. We also analyzed the distribution of motor units supplied from different cervical segments using the(More)
Natural head movements in alert, unrestrained cats were studied using video-filming, videofluoroscopy and electromyographic (EMG) recording methods. In each cat, up to sixteen neck muscles or neck-muscle compartments were implanted with recording electrodes. Patterns of muscle recruitment were examined during systematically-selected behavioral epochs in(More)
Patterns of innervation were examined in tandem muscle spindles teased from silver-stained muscles of the cat neck. Each tandem spindle was composed of two or more encapsulated receptors linked in series by a shared bag2 fiber. In most tandem spindles, two different types of encapsulation were identified according to differences in their intrafusal fiber(More)
A study using both anatomical dissection and electrophysiological recording has been made to analyse sensory components of the cervical dorsal rami in the cat. Particular attention has been paid to the physiological properties of Group III muscle afferents. The dorsal rami from C2 to C4 are composed of many nerve bundles that contain afferents from both(More)