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Detection thresholds for radial deformations of circular contours were measured using a range of radii and contour peak spatial frequencies. For radial frequencies above two cycles, thresholds were found to be a constant fraction of the mean radius across a four-octave range of pattern radii and peak spatial frequencies (mean Weber fraction: 0.003-0.004).(More)
Glass (Nature 1969;223:578-580) patterns are random dot stimuli that generate a percept of global structure. To study the mechanisms underlying this global form perception, concentric, radial, hyperbolic, and parallel Glass patterns were constructed. Thresholds for detecting each type of pattern were measured by degrading the patterns through the addition(More)
To simplify the study of visual face processing, we introduce a novel class of synthetic face stimuli based upon 37 measurements (head shape, feature locations, etc.) extracted from individual face photographs in both frontal and 20 degrees side views. Synthetic faces are bandpass filtered optimally for face perception and include both line and edge(More)
Psychophysical data demonstrate that orientation information in concentric, random-dot Glass patterns is summed linearly to extract a global form percept. Surprisingly, no such global pooling was found for Glass patterns with parallel structure. A simple neural model explains these results and agrees with recent V4 single unit physiology. As V4 provides the(More)
Humans are remarkably sensitive in detecting small deviations from circularity. In tasks involving discrimination between closed contours, either circular in shape or defined by sinusoidal modulations of the circle radius, human performance has been shown to be limited by global processing. We assessed the amount of global pooling for different pattern(More)
A horizontal array of vertically oriented Gabor elements was used to examine lateral masking in the near periphery (1.9 degrees-5.7 degrees eccentricity). Thresholds were assessed for detecting changes in the contrast, the spatial frequency, and the orientation of the central element within the array. The presence of surround elements induced marked(More)
The ventral form vision pathway of the primate brain comprises a sequence of areas that include V1, V2, V4 and the inferior temporal cortex (IT) [1]. Although contour extraction in the V1 area and responses to complex images, such as faces, in the IT have been studied extensively, much less is known about shape extraction at intermediate cortical levels(More)
In the primate visual system relatively complex patterns such as curved shapes are first represented at intermediate levels of the ventral pathway. Furthermore, there is now evidence for the existence of curvature population coding in primate V4. We sought to determine whether similar encoding occurs in the human visual system by using a context-dependent(More)
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) studies on humans have shown a cortical area, the fusiform face area, that is specialized for face processing. An important question is how faces are represented within this area. This study provides direct evidence for a representation in which individual faces are encoded by their direction (facial identity)(More)
There are two visual components to gaze: head orientation and orientation of the eyes relative to the head. This study explores the accuracy with which subjects can discriminate head orientation when the eyes are centered in the head. Discrimination thresholds averaged 1.9 degrees of head rotation for base head orientations of 0 degree and 15 degrees, but(More)