Franccois Graner

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Understanding the factors that direct tissue organization during development is one of the most fundamental goals in developmental biology. Various hypotheses explain cell sorting and tissue organization on the basis of the adhesive and mechanical properties of the constituent cells. However, validating these hypotheses has been difficult due to the lack of(More)
During animal development, several planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways control tissue shape by coordinating collective cell behavior. Here, we characterize by means of multiscale imaging epithelium morphogenesis in the Drosophila dorsal thorax and show how the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed PCP pathway controls morphogenesis. We found that the proto-cadherin(More)
Because of the resemblance of many epithelial tissues to densely packed soap bubbles, it has been suggested that surface minimization, which drives soap bubble packing, could be governing cell packing as well. We test this by modeling the shape of the cells in a Drosophila retina ommatidium. We use the observed configurations and shapes in wild-type flies,(More)
In the course of animal development, the shape of tissue emerges in part from mechanical and biochemical interactions between cells. Measuring stress in tissue is essential for studying morphogenesis and its physical constraints. For that purpose, a possible new approach is force inference (up to a single prefactor) from cell shapes and connectivity. It is(More)
During development, epithelial tissues undergo extensive morphogenesis based on coordinated changes of cell shape and position over time. Continuum mechanics describes tissue mechanical state and shape changes in terms of strain and stress. It accounts for individual cell properties using only a few spatially averaged material parameters. To determine the(More)
Tissue specificity of cell adhesion was directly characterized in a unit cell interaction using a novel laser trapping cell manipulator in combination with a fixed micropipet. We quantified the adhesive specificity of endodermal and ectodermal epithelial cells from Hydra, which are known to sort out within hours after being dissociated and then randomly(More)
The influence of surface tension and size on rounding of cell aggregates are studied using chick embryonic cells and numerical simulations of the cellular Potts model. Our results show exponential relaxation in both cases as verified in previous studies using 2D Hydra cell aggregates. The relaxation time decreases with higher surface tension as expected(More)
Cell aggregates are a tool for in vitro studies of morphogenesis, cancer invasion, and tissue engineering. They respond to mechanical forces as a complex rather than simple liquid. To change an aggregate's shape, cells have to overcome energy barriers. If cell shape fluctuations are active enough, the aggregate spontaneously relaxes stresses(More)
A numerical computation based on a tensorial visco-elasto-plastic model based on continuous mechanics is compared to experimental measurements on liquid foams for a bidimensional Couette flow between two glass plates, both in stationary and transient cases. The main features of the model are elasticity up to a plastic yield stress, and viscoelasticity above(More)
We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of microbubbles into a 2D microfoam and its flow in a rectangular microchannel. Using a flow-focusing method, we produce the foam in situ on a microfluidic chip for a large range of liquid fractions, down to a few percent in liquid. We can monitor the transition from separated bubbles to the(More)