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Activation of the innate immune system in obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to investigate the notion that increased numbers of macrophages exist in the islets of type 2 diabetes patients and that this may be explained by a dysregulation of islet-derived inflammatory factors. Increased(More)
Diabetes can be associated with cerebral dysfunction in humans and animal models of the disease. Moreover, brain anomalies and alterations of the neuroendocrine system are present in type 1 diabetes (T1D) animals, such as the spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model and/or the pharmacological streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model. Because of the(More)
Recent studies suggest an inflammatory process, characterized by local cytokine/chemokine production and immune cell infiltration, regulates islet dysfunction and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. However, the factor initiating this inflammatory response is not known. Here, we characterized tissue inflammation in the type 2 diabetic GK rat with a focus(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that decreased functional beta-cell mass is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus. Nowadays, the debate focuses on the possible mechanisms responsible for abnormal islet microenvironment, decreased beta-cell number, impaired beta-cell function, and their multifactorial aetiologies. This review is aimed to illustrate to(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammation followed by fibrosis is a component of islet dysfunction in both rodent and human type 2 diabetes. Because islet inflammation may originate from endothelial cells, we assessed the expression of selected genes involved in endothelial cell activation in islets from a spontaneous model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. We(More)
Cerebral dysfunctions, including a high incidence of depression, are common findings in human type 1 diabetes mellitus. An association between depression and defective hippocampal neurogenesis has been proposed and, in rodents, antidepressant therapy restores neuronal proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal neurogenesis is also deficient in diabetic(More)
1. Synthesis of oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin(AVP) is increased in induced models of Type I diabetes, such as thestreptozotocin model. However, these parameters have not yet been evaluated inspontaneous models, such as the nonobese diabetic mouse (NOD). Therefore, we studied in the magnocellular cells of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)of(More)
The pathogenesis of autoimmune insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is far from being resolved, despite extensive genetic and immunological research. However, recent experimental data from immune and endocrine studies using spontaneous or transgenic models of the disease have emphasized the role of the islet of Langerhans, and particularly(More)
Dendritic cell (DC), macrophage (Mphi) and lymphocyte infiltrations have been observed in normal human perinatal pancreata, but have never been investigated so early in control mice. In type 1 diabetes-prone NOD mice, these cells are thought to infiltrate first the periphery of the islets of Langerhans around weaning before further islet infiltration and(More)
The influence of diabetes mellitus on brain pathology is increasingly recognized. Previous contributions of our laboratory demonstrated in models of type 1 diabetes (nonobese diabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice), a marked astrogliosis and neurogenesis deficit in hippocampus and increased expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. In the present(More)