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Increasing evidence indicates that decreased functional beta-cell mass is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus. Nowadays, the debate focuses on the possible mechanisms responsible for abnormal islet microenvironment, decreased beta-cell number, impaired beta-cell function, and their multifactorial aetiologies. This review is aimed to illustrate to(More)
Diabetes can be associated with cerebral dysfunction in humans and animal models of the disease. Moreover, brain anomalies and alterations of the neuroendocrine system are present in type 1 diabetes (T1D) animals, such as the spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model and/or the pharmacological streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model. Because of the(More)
Cerebral dysfunctions, including a high incidence of depression, are common findings in human type 1 diabetes mellitus. An association between depression and defective hippocampal neurogenesis has been proposed and, in rodents, antidepressant therapy restores neuronal proliferation in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal neurogenesis is also deficient in diabetic(More)
1. A recently recognized complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is the encephalopathy involving, among other regions, the hippocampus. Since estrogens bring neuroprotection in cases of brain injury and degenerative diseases, we have studied if estradiol (E2) administration counteracts some hippocampal abnormalities of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic(More)
The influence of diabetes mellitus on brain pathology is increasingly recognized. Previous contributions of our laboratory demonstrated in models of type 1 diabetes (nonobese diabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice), a marked astrogliosis and neurogenesis deficit in hippocampus and increased expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. In the present(More)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus correlates with several brain disturbances, including hypersensitivity to stress, cognitive impairment, increased risk of stroke and dementia. Within the central nervous system, the hippocampus is considered a special target for alterations associated with diabetes. Neurogenesis is a plastic event restricted to few adult brain(More)
In human diabetes, degenerative and functional disorders of the central nervous system, including depression, are common findings. Defective dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis is associated with affective-related disorders and depression. We previously demonstrated reduced DG neurogenesis in a pharmacological type 1 diabetes model, the streptozotocin(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is linked to an 'encephalopathy' explained by some features common to the aging process, degenerative and functional disorders of the central nervous system. In the present study we describe a manifest hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in two different experimental mouse models of T1D including the(More)
The molecular pathways leading to islet fibrosis in diabetes are unknown. Therefore, we studied gene expression in islets of 4-month-old Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Wistar control rats. Of 71 genes found to be overexpressed in GK islets, 24% belong to extracellular matrix (ECM)/cell adhesion and 34% to inflammatory/immune response families. Based on gene data,(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress (OS), through excessive and/or chronic reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a mediator of diabetes-related damages in various tissues including pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we have evaluated islet OS status and beta-cell response to ROS using the GK/Par rat as a model of type 2 diabetes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Localization(More)