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TGF-beta1 is an important pleiotropic cytokine that has been described to have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on cell growth and differentiation. For several cell types, the effect of TGF-beta1 was found to correlate with the differentiation stage of the cells and the presence of other cytokines. In this report, we address the influence of(More)
A large body of evidence supports a role for proinflammatory mediators in atherosclerotic disease progression and instability. However, only few endogenous mechanisms have been suggested that could alter disease progression. One such mechanism is thought to be mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Transgenic mice that express a(More)
Analysis of genes modulated during the sensitization process either on mice (LLNA) or human (blisters) combined with data mining has allowed the definition of a comprehensive panel of sensitization biomarkers. This set of genes includes already identified markers such as the ARE family and others not yet associated with the sensitization process (the(More)
Induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance is an important phenomenon for the control of homeostasis in the immune system. There is now compelling evidence for CD4(+) T cells that prevent immune pathology, both in autoimmunity and in transplantation. However, the mechanisms involved in the specific differentiation of these T cells are unknown. We had(More)
There is now compelling evidence that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells play a major role in the maintenance of tolerance. Besides CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, different populations of regulatory CD4(+) T cells secreting high amounts of IL-10 (T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)) or TGF-beta (Th3) have also been described in in vivo models. In the lymphocyte transfer model of(More)
The study of the pathology of HIV-1 infection in chimpanzees supports the idea of the crucial role of HIV-infected monocytes in the pathogenesis of AIDS, although viral mechanisms that lead to T cell dysfunction and deletion during HIV infection are still unclear. We show here that HIV-1-infected antigen-presenting monocytes (APCs) are able to prime in(More)
Lipodystrophic syndrome is a major side effect of highly active antiviral therapy. Fat tissue redistribution is associated with changes in adipocyte gene expression and in circulating levels of adipocytokines involved in the development of insulin resistance. However, the evidence that HIV drugs accumulate into human adipocytes and have a direct effect on(More)
AIDS is characterized by a progressive decline in the number of CD4+ T cells. This is preceded by an early selective defect in the proliferation of these cells to recall antigens [1-3], pokeweed mitogen (PWM) [4-6] and to superantigens (SAg) [4,7]. In contrast, the proliferative response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) remains intact [1,2,5]. We and others(More)
Active suppression is mediated by a subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells that prevents autoimmunity. However, the mechanisms involved in their differentiation in vivo are currently under intensive research. Here we show that in vitro culture of bone marrow cells in the presence of IL-10 induces the differentiation of a distinct subset of dendritic cells with a(More)
We recently described a new population of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tr1) that inhibits proliferative responses of bystander T cells and prevents colitis induction in vivo through the secretion of IL-10. IL-10, which had been primarily described as a Th2-specific cytokine inhibiting Th1 responses, has displayed in several models a more general immune(More)