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BACKGROUND T helper type 1 (Th1) response plays a permissive role in atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that adoptive transfer of a novel subtype of T lymphocytes called regulatory T cells type 1 (Tr1) would inhibit Th1 responses by inducing a bystander immune suppression and therefore limit the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS Clones of(More)
A large body of evidence supports a role for proinflammatory mediators in atherosclerotic disease progression and instability. However, only few endogenous mechanisms have been suggested that could alter disease progression. One such mechanism is thought to be mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). Transgenic mice that express a(More)
Analysis of genes modulated during the sensitization process either on mice (LLNA) or human (blisters) combined with data mining has allowed the definition of a comprehensive panel of sensitization biomarkers. This set of genes includes already identified markers such as the ARE family and others not yet associated with the sensitization process (the(More)
Induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance is an important phenomenon for the control of homeostasis in the immune system. There is now compelling evidence for CD4(+) T cells that prevent immune pathology, both in autoimmunity and in transplantation. However, the mechanisms involved in the specific differentiation of these T cells are unknown. We had(More)
IL-10 is a cytokine secreted by a wide variety of cells type that has pleiotropic stimulatory and suppressive activities on both lymphoid and myeloid cells in vitro. To analyze the consequences of high IL-10 secretion by APCs in immune responses, we produced transgenic mice expressing human IL-10 directed by the MHC class II Ea promoter. Despite alterations(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Saccharomyces boulardii is a nonpathogenic yeast used for treatment of diarrhea. We used a mice model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to analyze the effects of S boulardii on inflammation. METHODS Lymphocyte-transferred SCID mice, displaying IBD, were fed daily with S boulardii. Weight loss and inflammatory status of the colon were(More)
TGF-beta1 is an important pleiotropic cytokine that has been described to have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on cell growth and differentiation. For several cell types, the effect of TGF-beta1 was found to correlate with the differentiation stage of the cells and the presence of other cytokines. In this report, we address the influence of(More)
There is now compelling evidence that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells play a major role in the maintenance of tolerance. Besides CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, different populations of regulatory CD4(+) T cells secreting high amounts of IL-10 (T regulatory type 1 (Tr1)) or TGF-beta (Th3) have also been described in in vivo models. In the lymphocyte transfer model of(More)
The induction of antigen-specific T-cell tolerance in the thymus and its maintenance in the periphery is crucial for the prevention of autoimmunity. It was recently proposed that cells of the dendritic family not only control immunity but also maintain tolerance to self-antigens, two complementary functions that would ensure the integrity of the organism in(More)
A recently reported epidemic of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Senegal provided an opportunity to study the dynamics of the development of immunity to human schistosomiasis. We report here on the cell-mediated immune response in a population of 99 females and 95 males, with particular emphasis on the relationship between intensity of infection and age. We(More)