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OBJECTIVE Mutations in chromosome X open reading frame 6 (CXorf6), a recently described candidate gene involved in the development of male genitalia, have been found in patients with complex 46,XY disorders of sexual development (46,XY DSD) including micropenis, bifid scrotum, and penoscrotal hypospadias. The objective of this work was to identify genomic(More)
CONTEXT In 46,XY disorders of sex development, 5α-reductase deficiency is rare and is not usually the first-intention diagnosis in newborn ambiguous genitalia, contrary to partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. Yet the cause of ambiguous genitalia may guide sex assignment, and rapid, precise diagnosis of 5α-reductase deficiency is essential. OBJECTIVE(More)
PURPOSE Mastermind-like domain containing 1 (MAMLD1) is a causative gene for the fetal development of male external genitalia. Almost 10% of patients with both severe and non-severe hypospadias exhibit mutations of MAMLD1. The aim of this work was to determine whether polymorphisms of MAMLD1 are a genetic risk factor for hypospadias. MATERIAL AND METHODS(More)
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is caused by numerous mutations of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The phenotype may range from partial AIS (PAIS) with ambiguous genitalia to complete AIS (CAIS) with female genitalia. In 70% of the cases, AR mutations are transmitted in an X-linked recessive manner through the carrier mothers, but in 30%, the(More)
OBJECTIVES The biologic action of androgens in target cells depends on plasma androgen levels and receptor transcriptional activity. We investigated the relationship between androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism, serum androgen levels, and anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal variables in 39 postmenopausal women, taking into consideration the(More)
BACKGROUND Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/AdBP4/FTZF1, NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that plays a key role in regulating adrenal and gonadal development, steroidogenesis and reproduction. Recently, haploinsufficiency of SF1 has been described in several 46,XY individuals with mild gonadal dysgenesis and impaired androgenization, but normal(More)
BACKGROUND Primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY disorders of sex differentiation (DSD) is a frequent reason for consultation in endocrine and gynecology clinics. Among the genetic causes of low-testosterone primary amenorrhea due to 46,XY DSD, SRY gene is reported to be frequently involved, but other genes, such as SF1 and WT1, have never been studied for their(More)
Disorders of androgen action are the main cause of male pseudohermaphroditism and include 5alphaR deficiency and androgen receptor defects. 5alphaR deficiency is characterized by female genitalia with some degree of masculinization, clitoromegaly, and severely bifid scrotum corresponding to the so-called pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias. At the(More)
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked disease caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) resulting in various degrees of defective masculinization in 46,XY individuals. In the present study, we describe a novel mutation in exon 7 of the AR gene in an Egyptian patient with partial AIS (PAIS). Sequencing analysis of the AR gene revealed(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether NR5A1 (SF-1) variants are a cause of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in 26 young women with similar genetic background. DESIGN Genetic and functional mutation study. SETTING University hospitals. PATIENT(S) Genetic analysis of the NR5A1 gene in 26 XX girls with POI. INTERVENTION(S) None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S)(More)