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Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is traditionally subdivided into serovars by serological and nutritional characteristics. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to assign 4,257 isolates from 554 serovars to 1092 sequence types (STs). The majority of the isolates and many STs were grouped into 138 genetically closely related clusters called(More)
For microbial pathogens, phylogeographic differentiation seems to be relatively common. However, the neutral population structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi reflects the continued existence of ubiquitous haplotypes over millennia. In contrast, clinical use of fluoroquinolones has yielded at least 15 independent gyrA mutations within a decade and(More)
The degree to which molecular epidemiology reveals information about the sources and transmission patterns of an outbreak depends on the resolution of the technology used and the samples studied. Isolates of Escherichia coli O104:H4 from the outbreak centered in Germany in May-July 2011, and the much smaller outbreak in southwest France in June 2011, were(More)
Shigella are human-adapted Escherichia coli that have gained the ability to invade the human gut mucosa and cause dysentery(1,2), spreading efficiently via low-dose fecal-oral transmission(3,4). Historically, S. sonnei has been predominantly responsible for dysentery in developed countries but is now emerging as a problem in the developing world, seeming to(More)
National Salmonella surveillance systems from France, England and Wales, Denmark, and the United States identified the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky displaying high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. A total of 489 human cases were identified during the period from 2002 (3 cases) to 2008 (174(More)
Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short(More)
To the Editor: Ciprofloxacin is the treatment of choice of severe non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in adults. Resistance to ciprofloxacin has been found exceptionally in nonty-phoidal Salmonella enterica isolates and only in serotypes Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, and Schwarzengrund (1–8). Such isolates have been collected from humans and animals in Europe,(More)
UNLABELLED The large outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe from May to July 2011 highlighted the potential of a rarely identified E. coli serogroup to cause severe disease. Prior to the outbreak, there were very few reports of disease caused by this pathogen and thus(More)
High-throughput epidemiological typing systems that provide phylogenetic and genotypic information are beneficial for tracking bacterial pathogens in the field. The incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection in Indonesia is high and is associated with atypical phenotypic traits such as expression of the j and the z66 flagellum antigens.(More)
Nontyphoid Salmonella is one of the main causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and is responsible for 65% of reported outbreaks of foodborne diseases in France. Serotyping is widely used for isolate preliminary identification, but it poorly discriminates strains. Rapid, efficient molecular subtyping tools have therefore been developed for the(More)