François-Xavier Weill

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Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica is traditionally subdivided into serovars by serological and nutritional characteristics. We used Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to assign 4,257 isolates from 554 serovars to 1092 sequence types (STs). The majority of the isolates and many STs were grouped into 138 genetically closely related clusters called(More)
For microbial pathogens, phylogeographic differentiation seems to be relatively common. However, the neutral population structure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi reflects the continued existence of ubiquitous haplotypes over millennia. In contrast, clinical use of fluoroquinolones has yielded at least 15 independent gyrA mutations within a decade and(More)
Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short(More)
To the Editor: Ciprofloxacin is the treatment of choice of severe non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in adults. Resistance to ciprofloxacin has been found exceptionally in nonty-phoidal Salmonella enterica isolates and only in serotypes Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, and Schwarzengrund (1–8). Such isolates have been collected from humans and animals in Europe,(More)
Shigella are human-adapted Escherichia coli that have gained the ability to invade the human gut mucosa and cause dysentery(1,2), spreading efficiently via low-dose fecal-oral transmission(3,4). Historically, S. sonnei has been predominantly responsible for dysentery in developed countries but is now emerging as a problem in the developing world, seeming to(More)
UNLABELLED The large outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe from May to July 2011 highlighted the potential of a rarely identified E. coli serogroup to cause severe disease. Prior to the outbreak, there were very few reports of disease caused by this pathogen and thus(More)
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains a serious global health concern. Since their emergence in the mid-1970s multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. Typhi now dominate drug sensitive equivalents in many regions. MDR in S. Typhi is almost exclusively conferred by self-transmissible IncHI1 plasmids carrying a suite of(More)
15 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) or bloody diarrhoea have been identified in the Gironde, southwest France. Investigations suggest the vehicle of transmission was sprouts, served at an event in Bègles on 8 June 2011. A strain of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 has been isolated from five cases. This strain is genetically related(More)
Genotyping of important medical or veterinary prokaryotes has become a very important tool during the last decades. Rapid development of fragment-separation and sequencing technologies has made many new genotyping strategies possible. Among these new methods is multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Here we present an update on the use of(More)
Shigella sonnei UCN59, isolated during an outbreak of S. sonnei in January 2007, was resistant to azithromycin (MIC 64 mg/L). The isolate contained a plasmid-borne mph(A) gene encoding a macrolide 2 -phosphotransferase that inactivates macrolides. Emergence of the mph(A) gene in S. sonnei may limit usefulness of azithromycin for treatment of shigellosis.